All posts by Dr. Vinant Bhargava

Chronic Kidney Failure

Chronic Kidney Failure – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

The chronic kidney failure is progressive loss of the ability of the kidney to properly perform one or more of the functions assigned, explains the Nephrologist in Delhi. These preferably consist of:

Purify waste substances produced in our body.

  • Maintain an adequate balance of the amount of water and electrolytes.
  • Manufacture and activate certain hormones necessary for the normal functioning of our body.

According to the Nephrologist in Delhi, Chronic kidney failure is a progressive process that evolves over many years and is irreversible, although strategies can be used to delay the progressive deterioration of the kidney.

Causes of chronic kidney failure

Many diseases can chronically damage the kidney. The most important ones are:

  • Metabolic diseases. By far the majority of cases of chronic kidney failure in Western societies are due to diabetes and high blood pressure.
  • Glomerulonephritis, that is, inflammation of the kidney glomeruli, the place where the blood is filtered. Glomerulonephritis can be of unknown cause or associated with other diseases, usually vasculitis or autoimmune diseases.
  • Genetic (birth) diseases such as polycystic kidney disease.
  • Medications and toxins.
  • Infectious diseases such as recurrent pyelonephritis.
  • Renal lithiasis due to the presence of large stones.
  • Or after causes.

What symptoms does chronic kidney failure produce?

Most people with chronic kidney failure have no symptoms. The appearance of symptoms depends on the severity of the kidney deterioration.

In the early stages, when there are no symptoms, kidney failure is discovered by taking a blood test for any reason and discovering an increase in creatinine.

As kidney deterioration progresses, vague and nonspecific symptoms may appear such as loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, mental dullness, cramps, itchy skin, loss of sexual interest, easy bleeding, irritability, tendency to sleep, lack of concentration, etc, states the Best Nephrologist in Delhi.

When renal failure is advanced, in addition to the previous symptoms, a series of important alterations occur that require adequate treatment:

  • Arterial hypertension. Both high blood pressure can lead to the appearance of chronic kidney failure, and chronic kidney failure can favor the development of high blood pressure and its possible complications.
  • Increased potassium (hyperkalemia). Potassium is eliminated by the kidney. If it doesn’t work well, it can build up in the blood and be life-threatening due to the possibility of serious heart arrhythmias.
  • Increased phosphorus. It is associated with the appearance of calcifications in various areas of the body and facilitates itching.
  • Anemia. The kidney manufactures erythropoietin, a substance necessary for the manufacture of red blood cells. In kidney failure, not enough erythropoietin is produced and, as a consequence, anemia occurs.
  • Bone problems (renal osteodystrophy). The kidney is the organ where vitamin D is activated, a hormone necessary for calcium to be deposited in the bones. If the kidney does not work well, there is not enough active vitamin D and the bones become decalcified.
  • Cardiovascular disease Patients with kidney failure frequently develop cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial disease, etc.). In fact, cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in these patients.
  • Other alterations. In addition to those previously discussed, patients with chronic kidney failure can present various complications of the brain, heart, and joints, etc.

How is the disease diagnosed?

The diagnosis of suspected chronic kidney failure occurs when observing an elevation of creatinine and urea in the blood. These alterations must be confirmed with successive analyzes. Glomerular filtration, that is, the kidney’s ability to filter waste from the body, must then be calculated.

Glomerular filtration is the best marker of the severity of kidney failure. The lower said filtering, the worse the situation of the kidneys, says the Kidney Specialist in Delhi.

The diagnosis of the cause of chronic kidney failure is sometimes very obvious, for example in patients with diabetes, but at other times it requires additional studies such as new blood or urine tests, ultrasound, CT or MRI of the kidneys and sometimes a kidney biopsy.

Chronic Kidney Failure Treatments

According to the Best Kidney Specialist in Delhi, Patients with chronic kidney failure should maintain a special diet (diet in patients with chronic kidney failure). In the initial stages, when the kidney still maintains a certain degree of function, treatment consists of preventing renal deterioration from continuing or making it slower, and treating all the symptoms and complications that appear:

  • Arterial hypertension. Medicines should be used to adequately control blood pressure. In general, combinations of several of them are usually necessary, being appropriate to use, if there are no contraindications, medicines that block the renin angiotensin system. It is convenient to maintain a blood pressure close to 130 mmHg high (systolic) and 80 mmHg low (diastolic).
  • Increased potassium. In patients with high potassium in the blood, a diet low in potassium (potassium content of food) should be recommended and, if it persists high, treat with medicines that prevent its absorption from the intestine, such as resincolestyramine.
  • Increased phosphorus. A diet low in phosphorus should be followed and, if necessary, medicines that reduce its absorption in the intestine can be used.
  • Anemia. Depending on the intensity of the anemia, treatment with iron and erythropoietin injected under the skin is recommended.
  • Bone problems (renal osteodystrophy). Treatment with calcium and active forms of vitamin D.

In advanced situations, when symptomatic treatment does not help to control one or more of these alterations, and in general when glomerular filtration rate drops below 15 ml / min / 1.73 m2, there is an indication for Dialysis in Delhi (hemodialysis or dialysis peritoneal) or to perform a kidney transplant in Delhi.

In addition to these treatments, it is important that patients adequately control the disease that has led to the development of kidney failure, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney infections, etc.

Patients with kidney failure are at high risk of cardiovascular complications. For this reason, it is essential that they do not smoke, that they maintain a diet low in fat and cholesterol and that they receive medicines to lower cholesterol, recommends the Top Nephrologist in Delhi.

Chronic kidney failure patients are at increased risk for infections, so they should get vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcus every year, says the nephrologist in Delhi.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease in the elderly

Chronic kidney disease or renal disease is a gradual damage or loss of kidney function over time. In chronic kidney disease excess fluids, electrolytes remains in blood and wastes build up in the body. Symptoms include being unwell and reduced appetite. Chronic kidney disease is a long term condition where the kidneys do not work effectively.

Renal physiological aging is characterized by a reduction in the renal glomerular filtration rate. In other words, the kidney does its work of filtration in a slower way, in the same way that the locomotion of an elderly person is also slower, but maintaining the preserved function, that is, reaching the same place.

“ The elderly are the biggest consumers of medication. “

This situation must be distinguished from the actual presence of kidney disease in the elderly, a situation in which the functioning of the kidneys is not adequate and is not related to the physiological decline of age. In situations of illness, and as in any other young or adult patient, kidney malfunction can be so severe that some interventions are needed. One is the medication review by nephrologist in Delhi.

The elderly are the biggest consumers of medication, as they also accumulate more pathologies, and some medications can impair kidney function. Pain medications from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, often taken by the elderly due to their degenerative osteoarticular pathology, can be very harmful and their indications and alternatives reviewed.

“In India, kidney transplantation is rarely performed in patients over 65/70 years.”

The other substantial intervention by the best nephrologist in Delhi is to prepare the patient for renal replacement treatment if and when the kidneys “stop”.

In India, renal transplantation is rarely performed in patients over 65/70 years old, since the risk of intervention and immunosuppression is greater than its benefit. But aging in the elderly is highly heterogeneous: age is of little significance for the decisions to be made, since other more important factors can overlap, such as: associated diseases, functionality, autonomy and independence. Thus, an elderly person may be a candidate for kidney transplant in Delhi, despite not being the norm.

“There are kidney patients who, due to the advanced comorbidities they have, do not benefit, in terms of time or quality of life, from any renal function replacement therapy.”

As for dialysis modalities (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), there is no difference between the two, similarly to what happens in young patients. The only point to note is that peritoneal dialysis is a modality that depends on the patient to be performed, unlike hemodialysis that is done by a nurse in a dialysis centre in Delhi. Therefore, if the patient is not able to perform the technique, he may need a caregiver to do it for him, or, if he does not have it, this modality should not be an option.

Finally, there are kidney patients who, due to the advanced comorbidities they present, do not benefit, in terms of time or quality of life, from any renal function replacement therapy. These patients should be offered palliative care. Therefore, patients should be followed up by kidney specialist in Delhi, in order to control the symptoms of kidney disease, promoting quality of life, but without being subjected to more invasive techniques.

The choice of these options should always be made in conjunction with the best kidney specialist in Delhi, who should elucidate the particularities of each elderly person, in order to better tailor the treatment to the person in question.

The author Dr. Vinant Bhargava is one of the top nephrologist in Delhi associated with reputed Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi. He is expert in treatment of kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, dialysis, kidney transplant, hypothyroidism and other ailments which causes kidney damage. You can consult him for treatment by calling +91-9990610096. Do not avoid symptoms of kidney disease, it may be hazardous. Early diagnosis can save life. Act fast save life.

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Dialysis – a procedure that saves lives every day

Millions of adults suffer from chronic kidney disease. As the disease initially develops with little or no symptoms, as many as 90% of patients do not know that there is something wrong with their kidneys. Dialysis in Delhi may be necessary when this organ is damaged and cannot function properly, explains the Nephrologist in Delhi. What is? What are the indications for its implementation? What steps should be taken when dialysis is not enough?

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a method that aims to replace the physiological functions of the kidney. This organ removes harmful metabolic products from the body (including metabolites of taken drugs), which ensures metabolic balance, normalizes blood pH, maintains normal blood pressure and helps to get rid of toxins from the body. The treatment uses the properties of a semi-permeable membrane, which allows for effective purification of electrolytes from colloidal solutions. This membrane retains some of the compounds and allows the rest to flow freely. This is possible thanks to a phenomenon called diffusion. Thus, the more blood reaches the membrane, the more effective dialysis will be, explains the Best Nephrologist in Delhi.

What are the indications for dialysis?

In most cases, patients with renal insufficiency and after poisoning, e.g. with ethylene glycol, are eligible for the dialysis in Delhi.

It is worth noting that dialysis therapy completely disorganizes the patient’s life. Regardless of whether the procedures take place in a dialysis centre or at the patient’s home, the patient must take into account the need to spend about 15 hours a week (3-5 hours on average every other day). Dialysis is a heavy burden on the circulatory system, so the patient has the right to feel tired after the procedure and requires rest. If the catheter connection procedure is not performed under sterile conditions, there is a risk of developing an infection, warns the Kidney Specialist in Delhi.

Dialysis is undoubtedly life-saving, but it is burdensome for the patient and ties him to the place of residence and the dialysis centre in Delhi.

Types of dialysis and their course

There are two types of dialysis:

  1. Hemodialysis – performed extracorporeal. It is used in advanced kidney diseases and is carried out using the so-called artificial kidney. Two needles are most often used during the procedure. One of them drains blood to the dialyzer and the other brings purified blood into the body. The purpose of hemodialysis is to remove all harmful substances from the blood that could not be removed with the urine due to impaired kidney function. This type of dialysis is performed at a dialysis station, and approximately 50 liters of blood pass through an artificial kidney during one session.
  2. Peritoneal dialysis – the patient’s peritoneum is used as a semipermeable membrane. The dialysis fluid is introduced into the abdominal cavity of the patient, the composition of which has been selected in such a way as to be able to effectively retain harmful metabolic products. Thus, the blood pH and blood pressure are balanced and the body gets rid of undesirable substances. Before the procedure, it is necessary to implant a catheter into the peritoneal cavity (about 2 months before the planned dialysis). The procedure is usually performed at the patient’s home, which requires a short training course for both the patient and the person who is caring for him.

Dialysis saves lives, but transplantation is definitely the better treatment option

Kidney transplant in Delhi is an effective renal replacement therapy. It should be performed in patients for whom transplantation is not contraindicated.

It is most beneficial for the patient to obtain a kidney from a living donor. After transplantation, such an organ functions on average for about 15 years and successfully performs all physiological functions. The best situation is when the donor is a closely related family member – a sibling or parent. It is not uncommon for the organ to be donated by people who are in an emotional relationship with the needy, e.g. spouses or friends. An organ for transplantation can also be obtained from a dead donor, however, it is associated with a slightly worse treatment effect. Such a kidney functions on average for 9-12 years.

Before donating an organ, the donor must undergo a number of necessary diagnostic and laboratory tests. Not only is his general health assessed, but also a histocompatibility test. This reduces the risk of possible transplant rejection, says the kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.

Contraindications to live kidney transplantation are:

  1. advanced age of the patient,
  2. active neoplastic diseases,
  3. severe damage to internal organs (mainly the heart),
  4. conditions that cannot be treated,
  5. addictions, including smoking or alcohol addiction,
  6. some chronic diseases, e.g. generalized atherosclerosis.

It is worth remembering that kidney transplantation doubles the life of patients compared to dialysis and significantly improves their quality of life. He does not have to give up his current lifestyle and most importantly, he is not dependent on dialysis, states the Nephrologist in Delhi.

kidney pain

Kidney Pain Is Symptom of Many Different Health Issues

Kidney pain is typically felt in the flank area, which is located at the lower back region under the lowest point of the rib cage on both sides of the spine. Kidney pain is sharp, very intense and usually comes in unpredictable waves. Kidney pain symptoms vary with the type of medical issue it is associated with, says kidney specialist in Delhi.

What is Not Kidney Pain?

Throbbing, dull, aching pain in the back is sometimes mistaken for kidney pain symptoms, but that is usually not the case. Ligaments, muscles or even vertebrae and disks in the spinal column typically cause such pain in the middle and lower back regions. Musculoskeletal pain can be relieved with heat and massage treatments, however the pain typically gets worse with movement and non-treatment.

Common Causes Of Kidney Pain

Causes of pain: Kidney Stones cause pain to your kidneys when kidney stones become lodged in the ureter. This slender tube connects the kidney to the bladder, and when the urine flow is blocked it causes the urine to back up in the kidneys.

What to expect: The Kidneys will swell and enlarge the pain sensitive thin covering around it. The kidneys are stretched and causes “Colic” pain, which is described as pain that comes in waves. This type of pain can be compared to childbirth, where the patient finds being still is nearly impossible, and that constant motion, pacing, and writhing can help to lessen the pain. The intense severity of the pain can cause nausea and vomiting. The kidney pain may start on both the left and right flank area, although the pain might move as the stone migrates down the ureter. As the stones continue to travel through the lower abdomen in the front along to the groin, it may cause the patient further intense eye watering pain.

Kidney Infection (also known as pyelonephritis)

Cause of pain: Kidney Infection (pyelonephritis) pain is caused by inflammation and infection within the kidney tissue. The swelling and stretching of the pain-sensitive capsule that is around the kidney sends stabbing, sharp, aching pain again to the flank area.

What to expect: Patients with infected kidneys usually have symptoms such as fever, vomiting, nausea and are extremely sensitive to touch in the area of the flank. Although they may be similar, kidney infections are much more serious than a common bladder infection. Kidney infection is a serious condition that needs to be treated quickly by nephrologist in Delhi. Intravenous antibiotics need to be started in order to prevent the infection from spreading into the bloodstream.

Dull Aching Pains

Kidney Cancer: Rarely does kidney cancer rarely grows tumors or cancer cells so large that they can stretch the capsule slowly, or that involve nerves in the kidney, thus causing usual stabbing, colic, sever pain related to kidney issues. Kidney cancer or tumors usually cause no pain at all, says nephrologist in Gurgaon.

Polycystic Kidney Disease: Polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary condition that can lead to massive enlargement of the kidneys. If left untreated over a number of years, it can also cause dull aching pain in the front of the abdomen instead of the back.

Blocked Urine Flow: The condition known as blocked urine flow causes a gradual blockage of urine flow. It is not the same as kidney stones, where there is a immediate blockage. This kidney pain symptom causes the kidney to stretch and causes a dull aching pain which is not a typical kidney pain symptom, explains kidney specialist in Gurgaon.

Bladder or ureteral spasms that happen when the bladder is extremely full, just before or while urinating may cause great discomfort to the lower abdomen or on both sides of the flank. The discomfort or pain felt is most likely coming from a involuntary muscle contraction (peristalsis). This kidney pain symptom probably does not stem from the kidney itself, but instead by the brief periods of muscle spasms. These spasms may seem to be coming from the kidney, but after voiding the bladder the painful sensation should resolve itself relativity soon.

Other Causes

Some less common causes for kidney pain are due to injury that may cause bleeding, or infarction of the kidney which is a sudden blockage to the artery of the kidney where the blood supply is cut off causing pain.

The various kidney pain symptoms described above all show that it is uncommon for the kidneys to cause dull aching pain. The facts also show that is it highly unusual for a slowly occurring blockage to associate itself with the medical issues listed including cancer. If you have any doubts about the possible problems with kidney, consult the best nephrologist in Delhi for diagnosis and treatment.

The author Dr. Vinant Bhargava is one of the top nephrologist in Delhi, India for dialysis, kidney transplant, kidney disease management and other ailments of kidney. You can contact him at 09990610096.

chronic kidney diseases

Chronic Kidney Diseases – What They Are and How To Treat Them

Chronic kidney diseases, also known as chronic kidney failure (CRF), are kidney damage that cause progressive loss of kidney functions. It consists of decreased kidney function for more than three months and structural changes that can compromise the kidneys. These organs are responsible for maintaining the balance of the internal environment of our body, conserving substances that need to be preserved, eliminating unwanted substances and controlling excess or lack of water. If they are not treated, they can permanently compromise the functioning of the organ, leading to the paralysis of the kidneys, which are responsible for filtering the blood, eliminating harmful substances and nutrients in the body.

Causes and Risk Factors

When a disease or health condition is harmful to kidney function and causes organ damage, it can be the start of chronic kidney disease.

The diabetes, the hypertension and obesity constitute the main risk factors for the development of chronic kidney disease. According to Dr. Vinant Bhargava, nephrologist in Delhi, “kidney diseases can progress to CRF if left unattended, mainly associated with other metabolic problems”.

Smoking, being over 65, having heart disease and a history of kidney problems in the family also increase the risk of developing the problem. That’s why it’s so important to keep your appointments with kidney specialist in Delhi up to date.


According with the Dr. Bhargava, nephrologist in Gurgaon, in the early stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic. Loss of kidney function usually takes months to years to occur, and can be so slow that symptoms do not appear until the kidneys are very weak. The first signs of CKD include malaise, fatigue, shortness of breath, tiredness, headache, loss of weight and appetite, nausea, vomiting and itching. The main diseases that cause CKD are diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure. Other symptoms that may appear are impotence, decreased sexual interest and interruption of the menstrual cycle.

Diagnosis and Exams

An early diagnosis contributes to a more effective treatment. The disease can be detected through two tests: analysis of urine and blood, which identify the levels of albumin and creatinine respectively, proteins that can be affected by kidney dysfunction and be imbalanced in our body.

Prevention and Treatments

It is estimated that 10% of the world population has some degree of CKD. When the disease is already at an advanced stage, the kidneys enter a process of functional failure. Thus, treatment is carried out with medication and changes in eating habits. More severe cases in which the disease is at a more advanced stage, treatment involves replacing kidney function through three modalities: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplant in Delhi.

Ideally, the patient should receive prior follow-up with the best nephrologist in Delhi, be informed about these modalities and decide, together with his doctor, which is the most appropriate for his case. If he has a compatible living donor, he can be prepared soon for kidney transplantation, considered the best form of therapy, without the need to undergo dialysis. If he has no living donor, he can choose between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In the first, the blood passes through a dialyzer, which will make the necessary changes to ensure its survival with quality. In the other, a catheter is implanted between the intestinal loops. The “dialyzer”, then, will be the tissue that lines the intestinal loops and the belly internally, called the peritoneum.

The good news is that to prevent or control kidney problems, regular water intake, healthy eating, low in salt and rich in vegetables, fruits and vegetables, not taking medication without medical advice and having a periodic check-up can help you save from that problem.

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nephrologist in Delhi

Food Supplements & Other Problems That Can Affect The Kidneys

The human kidneys are dark red colored organs, measuring approximately 10 cm each and which perform vital functions, being known as the “filters” of the organism. Among the main functions, they participate in the internal chemical balance, elimination of toxins from the blood, control of blood pressure and regulate the amount of body fluids.

For the kidneys to function in the best possible way, it is extremely important to maintain a balanced diet and drink plenty of water daily. Several other conditions can cause kidney problems. If left untreated, they can lead to permanent damage and even kidney failure, warns nephrologist in Delhi.

How to notice kidney changes?

Some signs can be noticed when the kidneys are altered. Most of these signs are noticed in urination. It may be accompanied by pain, burning, the presence of blood, cloudy or whitish colors, as well as changes in its frequency, explains top nephrologist in Delhi.

However, there are also other signs that may indicate reductions in kidney functions: tiredness, lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting, accompanied by urinary changes. Below are some of the main problems affecting the kidneys:

Infections: Some infections in the urinary tract can also extend and affect the kidneys, such as cystitis or bladder infection. Some of the main signs are fever, pain in the back and lower abdomen, frequent urination followed by pain and burning during urination. When the urinary infection reaches the kidney tissue, it is called pyelonephritis and can cause other kidney problems.

Nephritis: it is characterized by a reaction of the immune system that ends up attacking the kidneys, initiating an inflammatory process of the renal glomeruli. It is a disease that, if elevated to a chronic level, can cause kidney damage.

Kidney stones: they are hardened formations of crystals in the urinary tract or kidneys. At first, they may go unnoticed, but they cause acute pain attacks that may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The main causes for the formation of these crystals are the excess of sodium (salt), calcium, phosphate and the lack of citrate. Controlling the consumption of these substances, especially salt and regular water consumption, are the best ways to prevent the formation of kidney stones.

Food supplements and their effects on the kidneys

Food supplements have the main function of complementing a diet, either for nutritional replacement, or for specific purposes (such as gaining muscle mass), providing the necessary nutrients for the healthy functioning of the body, such as proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. However, food supplements if consumed inappropriately, instead of nourishing, can harm the entire body, especially the kidneys and livers. They can trigger a series of mild and serious health problems, since their excess can cause an overload of these organs and / or the accumulation of substances, leading to residual formations, such as calculations. Below are the main kidney complications caused by excess dietary supplements, explained by best kidney specialist in Delhi:

  • Kidney stones: usually caused by the overuse of water-soluble supplements, such as minerals, especially calcium, phosphate and vitamin D.
  • Intoxications: many people take vitamin supplements excessively believing that the excess will be completely eliminated by the body. It is true that, unlike proteins and carbohydrates, vitamins are eliminated, but the excess of one vitamin can cause the need to consume another and this imbalance leads to renal intoxication. Intoxications inhibit the functioning of the kidneys and can cause kidney failure.
  • Renal failure: Caused mainly by excessive intake of protein supplements, which forces the kidneys to work harder, leading to partial and even total failure in the long run.

How to prevent kidney overload?

To prevent the kidneys from working overload, you should first have a diet with balanced nutrients, without excess and you should drink water in an adequate amount. Water consumption is even more important if the person uses food supplements and practices physical activity. The use of supplements is far beyond reading the label. In order to have a healthy consumption, the choice and dosage of the supplement must be adjusted to the physical condition of each person and, therefore, it must always be accompanied by a nutritionist and a kidney specialist in Delhi.

How to identify a renal complication?

Usually kidney complications are noticed in the act of urination and appearance of urine. If the urine is extremely acidic, reddish in color, with unusual odors, with foam or if the urination itself is accompanied by pain, it is possible that there is some complication in the functioning of the kidneys. For this, it is recommended to seek the best nephrologist in Delhi to investigate the changes.

Kidney Transplant


A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor in a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. Transplantation improves the hope and quality of life of patients with renal impairment.

Kidney transplants are performed under general anesthesia, so you are not awake during the procedure. The surgical team monitors your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen level during the procedure.

During surgery:

  • Your kidney transplant surgeon in Delhi makes an incision in your lower part on one side of your abdomen and puts your new kidney in. Unless the kidneys themselves are causing complications such as high blood pressure, kidney stones, pain, or infection, they are in place.
  • The blood vessels of the new kidney connect to the blood vessels in the lower abdomen, just above one of the legs.
  • The ureter of the new kidney (the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder) connects to the bladder.

After the procedure

After your kidney transplant in Delhi, you can expect:

  • Spend from a few days to a week in the hospitalNephrologist in Delhi and nurses monitor your condition in the hospital’s transplant recovery area for signs of complications. Your new kidney will produce urine like your own kidneys did when they were healthy. This often starts immediately. In other cases, it may take several days, and you may need temporary dialysis until your new kidneys start working properly. You may feel discomfort or pain around the incision site during healing. Most kidney transplant recipients can return to work and normal activities three to eight weeks after transplantation. You should not lift objects weighing more than 10 pounds (4.5 kg) or exercise (except walking) until the wound has healed (usually about six weeks after surgery).
  • Have frequent checkups while you are in recovery. After you are discharged from the hospital, you will need a thorough follow-up by kidney specialist in Delhi for a few weeks to check if the new kidney is working well and to make sure your body is not rejecting it. You may need blood tests several times a week and may need to adjust your medications in the weeks after your transplant. During this period, if you live in another city, you may need to arrange to stay near the transplant center.
  • Take medication for the rest of your life. You will need to take several medications after your kidney transplant. Medications called “immunosuppressants” (anti-rejection drugs) help prevent the immune system from attacking and rejecting the new kidney. Other medications help reduce the risk of other complications, such as infections, after transplantation.


To prevent your body from rejecting your donor kidney, you will need medications to suppress your immune system. Because these anti-rejection medications make your body more vulnerable to infection, your       doctor for kidney in Delhi may also prescribe antibiotics, antiviral medications, and antifungal medications.

It is important to take all your medications as prescribed by your best nephrologist in Delhi. Your body may reject the new kidney if you skip medications even for a short period. Contact your kidney transplant doctor in Delhi right away if you are having side effects that prevent you from taking your medications. After the transplant, it is strongly recommended that you get self-control and go to checkups with a dermatologist to check for any signs of skin cancer and track your other cancer.


Diet and nutrition

After your kidney transplant, you may need to adjust your diet to keep your kidney healthy and in good working order. You will have fewer dietary restrictions than you would have if you were getting dialysis therapy before your transplant, but you may still need to make some changes to your diet.

Your transplant team includes a nutrition specialist (dietitian) who can discuss your nutrition and diet needs and answer any questions you have after the transplant.

Some of your medications can increase your appetite and make weight gain easier. But reaching and maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise is just as important for transplant recipients as it is for everyone else to reduce the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes.

You may need to keep track of how many calories you eat or limit foods high in sugar and fat.

Your dietitian will also recommend several healthy food options and ideas to implement in your nutrition plan. Your dietitian’s recommendations after a kidney transplant may include:

  • Eating at least five servings of fruits and vegetables a day
  • Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice due to its effect on a group of immunosuppressive medications (calcineurin inhibitors)
  • Include enough fiber in your daily diet
  • Drinking skim milk or consuming other skim dairy products, which is important for maintaining optimal calcium and phosphorus levels
  • Eating lean meats, poultry, and fish

Your dietitian may also recommend:

  • Follow a low-salt, low-fat diet
  • Follow food safety guidelines
  • Stay hydrated by drinking the right amount of water and other fluids every day


Once you recover from transplant surgery, you should regularly incorporate exercise and physical activity into your life to continue improving your overall physical and mental health.

After transplantation, regular exercise helps increase energy levels and strength. It also helps you maintain a healthy weight, reduce stress, and avoid common complications after transplantation, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.

The best kidney specialist in Delhi will recommend a physical activity program tailored to your personal needs and goals.

Right after the transplant, you should walk as much as you can. Gradually, start incorporating more physical activity into your daily life, including doing at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise, five days a week.

Walking, biking, swimming, low-impact strength training, and other physical activities you enjoy can be part of a healthy and active lifestyle after a transplant. Be sure to contact your nephrologist in Gurgaon before starting or changing your exercise routine after the transplant.

Obstructive Nephropathy

Obstructive Nephropathy: Diagnosis and Treatment

What is it and what are the reasons?

Obstructive nephropathy is an abnormality in the structure and function of the kidneys, which is caused by obstruction of the outflow of urine due to partial or complete obstruction of the urinary tract (most commonly ureters or urethra), explains the best nephrologist in Delhi.

The most common causes are prostatic hyperplasia and cancer, tumors (uterus, ovary, large intestine), uterine prolapse, retroperitoneal fibrosis, narrowing of the ureter or its opening to the renal pelvis or bladder (may be acquired or congenital), posterior urethral valve (usually congenital in boys).

The cause of obstructive nephropathy may also be impaired urinary tract function, most often the bladder after a spinal cord injury or as a result of a malformation of the spinal cord (e.g. cerebrospinal hernia) or so-called neurogenic bladder (bladder neck spasm).

A variant of obstructive nephropathy is drainage nephropathy caused by long-term backward reflux (reflux) of urine from the bladder to the ureter and kidney.

How common is obstructive nephropathy?

Obstructive nephropathy is a fairly rare kidney injury in adults, while it is the most common cause of chronic renal failure in children (due to urinary congenital malformations), says the nephrologist in Delhi.

How is it revealed?

An obstacle to the outflow of urine from the kidney leads to the development of hydronephrosis, i.e. the widening of the pelvis and the renal calyces. If the urine outflow from the kidney suddenly almost completely closes, renal colic appears.

When hydronephrosis develops slowly, it may not have any symptoms, but if it reaches a large size, it manifests itself like a tumor in the abdomen – a large kidney can be felt by touch examination or press on other organs in the abdomen. Sometimes urinary tract obstruction is partial or changes over time, and then large (polyuria) and small (oliguria) urine volumes may alternate. Symptoms of a urinary outflow obstruction may be urinary tract infection or haematuria. When permanent, severe damage occurs to both kidneys, symptoms of chronic renal failure occur, says the nephrologist in Noida.

What to do if symptoms occur

Always seek medical attention if you experience symptoms suggestive of a urinary tract disease, i.e.

  • urination disorders
  • pain in the lumbar region or lower abdomen
  • haematuria
  • palpable tumor in the stomach
  • symptoms of urinary tract infection.

How does the doctor make a diagnosis?

Reported symptoms (as above) indicate a disease of the urinary tract which may lead to obstruction of urine outflow (and development of obstructive nephropathy). The most important are imaging of the urinary system, first of all USG, then usually urography or CT They show unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis, and when the obstacle is located low – widening of one or both ureters or bladder distension. These tests also help to identify the cause, i.e. the type of obstacle to the proper outflow of urine, explains the nephrologist in Gurgaon.

What are the treatments?

The goal of treating obstructive nephropathy is to restore effective drainage of urine from the kidneys, which involves removing or bypassing an obstacle that obstructs urine outflow. Usually urological treatment is needed. If the obstacle cannot be removed and the urine outflow is restored, urological procedures are carried out by the urologist in Noida to avoid the obstacle. This can be the introduction of a catheter into the bladder, ureter or directly into the renal pelvis through body shells in the lumbar region (so-called transcutaneous nephrostomy). Usually these are urgent interventions that ensure urine outflow until the patient is ready for elective surgery for the final treatment of the obstacle (e.g. prostate surgery, bladder tumor or urinary reconstruction).

Is it possible to cure completely?

Complete cure for obstructive nephropathy is possible provided the obstruction has been permanently cured before irreversible kidney changes have occurred. Removing an obstacle if chronic kidney damage has already occurred does not lead to cure because chronic kidney disease is progressive, states the kidney specialist in Delhi.

What do you need to do after treatment?

In obstructive nephropathy, urological supervision and periodic monitoring of urinary tract function are usually necessary. When there is permanent kidney damage (chronic obstructive nephropathy), periodic nephrological monitoring is required, says the kidney specialist in Noida.

What to do to avoid getting sick?

To avoid obstructive nephropathy, obstacles to urine outflow should be detected and treated early. Particular attention should be paid to any urination disorders, suggests the nephrologist in Delhi.

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the developed world, says the best nephrologist in Delhi.

The diabetes, characterized disease excess blood glucose can affect various organs of the body including the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) or eyes (diabetic retinopathy). Good diabetes control is able to prevent, delay or decrease the appearance of these and other complications of the disease.

The constant maintenance of high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood causes a disturbance in the wall of the arteries. As a consequence, the blood does not correctly reach the tissues and this leads to a disorder in the structure and function of different organs in the body, explains the nephrologist in Delhi.

The mechanism by which excess glucose affects the arteries is very complex. On the one hand, the wall of the arteries is made up of proteins. Glucose tends to bind to these proteins, and this phenomenon can ultimately deconstruct the arterial wall. On the other hand, the insulin deficiency characteristic of diabetes means that the transformation of glucose for energy is carried out through a specific type of metabolic pathway. As a consequence, the body accumulates a series of substances that can also cause alterations in the walls of the arteries, says the nephrologist in Noida.

The appearance of complications in a diabetic person also depends on their personal susceptibility to changes caused by high glucose levels.

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure in the developed world, accounting for approximately 35-40% of new cases of kidney failure each year, says the nephrologist in Gurgaon. It should be known that:

The development of early stages of diabetic nephropathy is frequent

Throughout life, around 50% of people with type 1 diabetes develop microalbuminuria – presence of the albumin protein in the urine, which is an indicator of impaired kidney function.

Approximately 20% of people with type 1 diabetes develop kidney failure.

In Caucasian people with type 2 diabetes, between 5 and 10% go on to develop end-stage chronic kidney failure (CRFD), while among non-Caucasians the proportion is even higher.

Diabetic kidney failure is the most common cause of admission to kidney replacement programs, dialysis or transplantation, in most countries of the world, says the kidney transplant doctor in Delhi.

In India, around a third of people with end-stage chronic kidney disease have diabetes. This population is estimated to grow at an annual rate of 8%.

Up to 40% of new cases of IRCT can be attributed to diabetes.

The risk of CKD is 12 times higher in people with type 1 diabetes compared to those with type 2 diabetes, says the kidney specialist in Delhi.

There are two treatment options when the kidneys fail.

Dialysis – peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis – and kidney transplant. The costs of both treatments are high. Diabetes is estimated to represent between 5 and 10% of the national health budget in western developed countries.

Diabetic kidney failure develops so slowly that it may not give symptoms for many years.

The best way to detect the problem is to test your urine for proteins, which should not normally be present, such as albumin. The Kidney Specialist in Noida recommends that every person with diabetes undergo a urine test for albuminuria each year.

Close control of the blood glucose level reduces the risk of microalbuminuria, and therefore of future chronic terminal renal failure, by up to 35%.

There is conclusive evidence that good blood glucose levels can significantly reduce the risk of developing complications and slowing their progression in all types of diabetes.

Control of high blood pressure and high levels of fats in the blood (hyperlipidemia) is also very important, says the nephrologist in Delhi.

Prevention and Early Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases

Most kidney diseases can behave like ” silent killers “: they work undisturbed, without symptoms, for years and, when their effects are revealed, it can be late to run for cover. Attention to them is dictated by the need to prevent chronic renal failure and to reduce cardiovascular risk, which increases significantly already in the presence of mild renal failure.

We cannot therefore think that our kidneys are indestructible, or worse that they do not deserve any consideration; we don’t even have to think that kidney disease is always a deadly trap.

If the diagnosis is early, the treatments can be very effective. A healing is common. In any case, the evolution of the disease can be significantly slowed down, says the nephrologist in Delhi.

So, what can you do to find out about kidney injuries in time?

First of all, be careful of the signs that may indicate their appearance.

Here are the main ones:

  • Emission of dark colored urine (up to a “coca cola” color) or blood red, or with bad smell. Even the formation of a lot of foam can have a meaning of abnormality;
  • Significant increase in urinary volume, especially at night, and persistent thirst;
  • Edemas, in the lower or diffuse limbs;
  • Increase in blood pressure values ​​beyond the maximum normal limits;
  • Pain in the lumbar area (up to real colic), sense of weight in the kidney not referable to lumbosciatalgia;
  • Unexplained anemia, fatigue, significant malaise for no apparent reason;
  • Burning urinating, fever (especially if with chills), need for frequent urination;

First of all, a fresh urine test must be performed (to avoid alterations caused by fermentation).

Most kidney diseases cause urinary changes, with the presence of:

  • blood, mostly not evident to the naked eye, but only on chemical (hemoglobin) and microscopic (micrometry) examination;
  • albumin (albuminuria) isolated, or associated with other blood proteins (proteinuria);
  • white blood cells, a sign of inflammation of the kidney or urinary tract, often, but not always, of infectious origin;
  • other elements, such as the so – called cylinders, which are “molds” of proteins, cells or cellular debris, precipitated in the lumen of the tubules and then mobilized by the flow of urine;

A separate case is that of cancer cells that can be highlighted by the so-called urinary cytological examination.

Abnormal amounts of albumin, blood and white blood cells can be easily searched for by immersing a test strip in the urine. It is this safe and rapid research method that is used in the screening of kidney disease. In case of abnormality, the examination will be supplemented by the microscopic one of the urinary sediments.

Very reliable and rapid automatic equipment is now spreading in the most modern laboratories, which allow to combine the chemical examination with that of the urinary sediment.

As always happens in medicine, there are exceptions to the kidney disease rule = urinary alterations. The most common exception is that of nephroangiosclerosis and some hereditary diseases, at least in the initial phase, such as polycystic kidneys, which can be present without there being obvious urinary changes.

It should also be borne in mind that, in the course of their progression towards an ever more serious renal failure, chronic kidney diseases often cause arterial hypertension.

In turn, kidney damage can be caused by an arterial hypertension that is not initially linked to nephropathy (by far the most common condition is that of the so-called essential arterial hypertension).

Measuring blood pressure is therefore another important step to discover nephropathy in time and, often, to prevent it.

A simple urine test and a blood pressure check therefore allow you to suspect the existence of a kidney disease, but unfortunately the normal results are not enough to rule it out categorically.

For this reason, it is necessary to identify people at risk of developing nephropathy in order to subject them to more detailed investigations.

Detecting the presence of a condition at risk of developing nephropathy, and not rarely if more than one is associated with it, is however very important if you want to prevent the onset of kidney damage.

To prevent kidney disease, the most important risk conditions for their appearance must be taken into account and, if possible, prevented and corrected, suggests the nephrologist in Noida.

Here are the main risk conditions for the development of a kidney:

  • aging (over 60 years)
  • hypertension
  • diabetes
  • prolonged use of medications without medical supervision, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • severe hypercholesterolaemia
  • important obesity
  • kidney stones
  • recurrent urinary tract infections
  • lower urinary tract obstruction (e.g. high prostate hypertrophy)
  • previous kidney disease
  • ongoing immunological diseases (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis etc.)
  • presence of kidney disease in family members

Taking these conditions into account, nephrologist in Delhi suggests some good rules for defending our kidneys.

  1. Prevention means first of all treating diseases that can induce kidney damage: first of all arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and diabetes. Naturally, first of all, the conditions that can favor their appearance must be corrected, such as obesity, the so – called dysmetabolic syndrome, too sedentary life, varying, if necessary, the lifestyle.
  2. In keeping with the previous rule, avoid diets very rich in calories, sugar, sweets, animal fats and salt, and smoking.

The traps are many. Canned and preserved foods are generally rich in salt; even the bread of some regions is quite rich: in case of need, consuming bread without salt can be useful. It is always good to drink water with a certain abundance: a liter and a half or two a day is a safe dose. The smoke can also be harmful to the health of the kidneys, warns the nephrologist in Gurgaon.

  1. Do not resign yourself to living with high cholesterol and excess body weight, which can promote arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure and diabetes.
  2. Regularly check the blood pressure, knowing that it is considered an optimum pressure equal to or less than 130 of 80 mm of mercury, and that values above 140/90 are defined as pathological, at any age (although in diabetics is suggested keep the pressure at values ​​lower than 130/80), suggests the kidney specialist in Delhi.
  3. If you are hypertensive, have diabetes or signs of arteriosclerosis, also take care to protect the kidneys, by implementing all the measures recommended by the doctor for kidney in Delhi. However, it is not enough to be content with following treatments: it is also necessary to check that the results are really what you want. For example, in the case of high blood pressure, the treatment can be considered effective only if blood pressure values ​​lower than the classic “140 out of 90” are obtained. Today there are many drugs to control arterial hypertension and it is often obtained by combining several medicaments in small doses, with reduction of negative side effects and enhancement of the positive effect. It is also important to know that some of these drugs, such as ACE inhibitors and so-called receptor antagonists, in addition to the antihypertensive effect, also have a specific renoprotective action.
  4. In the case of diabetes, make sure to obtain well-controlled glycemic levels, with values ​​of the so-called glycated hemoglobin as close as possible to the norm, and also in this case check blood pressure very well and resolve any overweight conditions, says the kidney specialist in Noida.
  5. Maintaining a proper diet and careful control of body weight, which is always important: taking medications does not authorize you to neglect dietary rules.
  6. Do not resign yourself to living with urinary tract infections, kidney stones or chronic obstruction of the urinary tract, for example from prostatic hypertrophy.
  7. Avoid prolonged use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs, such as analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, especially if taken without medical supervision; this does not mean that those who need it should give it up, but it is advisable, if you use them frequently, to remember to check the kidney situation periodically, advices the kidney specialist in Gurgaon.
  8. Carry out, even if it feels good, a simple urinalysis during other laboratory tests, or in any case with a two-year deadline, and do not neglect any minor anomalies revealed by the urinalysis, such as blood or proteins in very large quantities modest. On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that in some situations, such as in the presence of kidney damage due to high blood pressure or arteriosclerosis, the urine test is often normal for a long time.
  9. Perform, under all risk conditions, a check on renal function with the determination of creatininemia, possibly repeating it at regular intervals, for example annual, or every six months if the risk is high. Creatinine is a muscle mass product which is eliminated by the kidney and accumulates in the blood when kidney function decreases. Blood values ​​above 1.2 mg / dl in women and 1.4 mg / dl in men may indicate functional kidney damage and warrant further investigation. Using simple mathematical formulas and commonly used calculators it is easy to deduce the value of renal filtration from creatininemia. This control, which has supplanted the traditional one of blood urea nitrogen, can constitute a first alarm bell, particularly important when the urine test is normal, for an evolutionary nephropathy.
  10. Be careful of minor and nonspecific signs of kidney disease, such as edema of the lower limbs, hypertension, even if not constant, chronic or relapsing urinary tract infections, the emission of urine of a different color or odor than usual.

All these signs do not always indicate the presence of kidney disease or urinary tract, but it is best to make sure that they are truly harmless, suggests the nephrologist in Delhi.