Tag Archives: astronomy

What If Each Planet Replaced Our Moon?



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We can thank the Moon for predictable weather, ocean currents and the circulation of important nutrients. The Moon also helps stabilize the Earth’s tilt. Take away the Moon, and the Earth would go wobbling all over the place. And it would cause what I can only describe as climate change on steroids. Imagine if one day you looked up into the night sky, and saw Mars or Saturn where the Moon was supposed to be. That would sure turn our Earth into an alien world. And not just because of the new view. How would replacing the Moon change the Earth’s orbit? What planet could we safely replace our Moon with? And what planet would be the most disastrous?

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Bad News For The 3 Artemis Missions



There is euphoria for the Artemis program, praise is being sung for the
Space Launch System rocket, and plans are being made for the moves that should soon put man back on the Moon.
For next November, then, the departure of the Artemis I mission is being prepared. This will be the second unmanned test flight of the Orion capsule and the first launch of the rocket.
A mission of extraordinary importance and long duration (three weeks), which after half a century from Apollo 17 will bring a NASA vehicle to circumnavigate the Moon
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Officially, yes… NASA is still holding on to the possibility of a 2021 launch date for the debut flight of its Space Launch System rocket.
In early September, in fact, a spokesman for the agency publicly stated that “NASA is working towards a launch for the Artemis I mission by the end of this year”.
However, several unofficial sources are certain that the Artemis I mission will not depart until next spring, also assuming a likely shift to next summer. The space agency, in fact, according to the same sources would already be delayed by about two months compared to the targets that it had set for testing and for integration of the rocket at the Kennedy Space Center; and pre-flight tests still seem to be beyond coming…
Recall then that, to aggravate the situation, there is also the slowdown in the development of the Human Landing System, the vehicle that will carry the crew of Artemis III from lunar orbit to the surface.

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#InsaneCuriosity #ArtemisMission #Moon

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What's Happening Inside Jupiter?



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If our solar system was a city, the most known attraction would be Jupiter. It is enormous. It is monumental. I’ll be your guide for today, and I’ll show you the secrets of the gaseous giant. In particular, what’s inside of Jupiter?
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00:00 Intro
2:02 Jupiter History
4:46 Jupiter’s Moons
4:53 Jupiter facts
6:40 The great red spot
8:02 Inside Jupiter!

#InsaneCuriosity #Jupitercore #Jupiter

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What If Jupiter Swallowed Every Planet in the Solar System?



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You start your day hearing wild news. Jupiter has just swallowed Saturn. And it doesn’t stop there. Jupiter is on its way to swallow every planet in the Solar System. Jupiter has swallowed a planet before. Around 4.5 billion years ago, a protoplanet slammed into the young Jupiter. How big would Jupiter get? What would you see from Earth? Would Jupiter get rings like Saturn?

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#WhatIf #Jupiter #Saturn #ProtoPlanet #Ganymede

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What If We Moved the Solar System?



Moving is never easy. The packing and unpacking, having to start fresh and make new friends, all this can be challenging. Let’s face it, whether it’s a nasty landlord or an imminent threat to humanity, sometimes you just have to move! What if we had to build a stellar engine to move our entire solar system? How could we do it? Where would we go?

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What Is Dark Matter?



Have you ever wondered what exactly is the universe made of?
According to the cosmological model, our universe was born 13.7 billions years ago, by a huge e*plosion that gave birth to our space like we know it nowadays:
the Big Bang. Everything that exists was born in that immense e*plosion.
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Science development led us to more and more sophisticated and accurate technology to investigate the cosmos, and little by little astronomers and physicists have learned a lot about the universe, discovering stars, stardust, planets, satellites, asteroids, galaxies, nebulae, clusters of galaxies and so on…Until recently we thought to be well advanced in the comprehension of matter distribution around the universe, nevertheless, starting from the last century,
observations suggest that there is far more to discover!

As a matter of fact, all that exists in the universe seems to be much more than what we can detect. The mass we can see and measure is only a minimum fraction of the whole universe. Yes, because the larger amount of matter is invisible and undetectable by our instruments. It’s like an immense halo that permeates the cosmos without emitting, absorbing and reflecting nor light neither electromagnetic wave.
This is the dark side of the universe.
This is DARK MATTER.
Now physicists assess that only the 15% of the matter in the universe is made of detectable ordinary mass. The overwhelming majority is made up of something that we can’t detect directly, so scientists called it “dark matter”. The name dark is due to the fact that it doesn’t shine, it doesn’t absorb, it doesn’t reflect light or any other electromagnetic radiation, we detect its presence by indirect effects only. It’s like a phantom, we can’t see it, it’s completely invisible.

Wait, what? How is that possible?
Curious to know how? Stick with us and we will tell you how are things in this video!

what is dark matter?
what exactly is made of?
where can we find it?
how can we know that it exists and how we measure it?
How is it arranged in the universe?
How much dark matter?

To answer to all these questions we need to step back
so, let’s rewind a bit the tape and go back in time.

STORY OF DARK MATTER: the 1st evidence in ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES

Since the end of 19th to the beginning of 20th century, many scientists were interested in so-called “obscure stars and dark gases”, little luminous matter that couldn’t be identified with telescopes.
In 1877 Italian priest Angelo Secchi, expert in stellar spectroscopy, in a paper, asked himself questions about the presence of scattered dark masses in space.

In 1933 the swiss physicist Fritz Zwicky was trying to understand the behaviour of clusters of galaxies. In particular, while observing a cluster of a thousand galaxies in the “Coma Berenices”, 150 million light-years far from here, he found some anomalies in their motion. In fact, they were rotating with a speed about 100 time faster than what the theory expected, as if the total mass of the cluster was about 400 times higher than it was.
In other words, the gravity effect of the cluster was too low for such fast orbits.
Nevertheless, so far, this was considered an issue due to a mistake in the process of measurement, because of technical limitation. It was essentially believed that the missing mass was made of faint stars, planets, meteor, scattered gas in interstellar spaces.

2nd evidence of dark matter: THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSE EFFECT

Nowadays we have another instrument to assess the amount of dark matter in the galaxies.
According to Einstein’s general relativity, if we interpose a mass between a distant electromagnetic source and an object that we’re observing, since the mass curves space-time, this mass will act as a lens to bend the light from this source. The more massive an object, the more lensing is observed. By measuring the distortion geometry, the mass of the object can be deduced.
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#InsaneCuriosity

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What If We Could See Through a Black Hole?

What If We Could See Through a Black Hole?

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This star is about to transform into a black hole. And we’re about to travel inside it to see what’s on the other side. The only problem is that we’ll never be able to report our findings back to Earth. Because once you go inside a black hole, there’s no coming back. So maybe there’s a better way to find out what’s on the other side. Could we use a special telescope? How would light behave inside a black hole? And why could the first image of a black hole provide all the answers?

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3 Nations Arrive On Mars!

3 Nations Arrive On Mars!

The Mars race to the red planet has long appeared to be exclusive to the biggest billionaires and their corporate backups, but someone else has crossed the white ribbon first. We’ll talk about these folks and more in today’s episode!
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If you’re like me who loves all the news going around about the red planet, you probably would have already heard about the biggest players in the game of getting to Mars first. Of course, first and foremost, there’s the ever popular SpaceX program by Elon Musk. Then we also have Blue Origin by Jeff Bezos.You can really tell that there’s really huge interest in bagging the medal of being the first corporate entity to bring Earth to Mars. I mean, for something to get two of the world’s biggest billionaires? I don’t think they are men who like to waste time on anything they wouldn’t believe have any value whatsoever. Be honest, guys. Who among these two did you place your bets on?
Well, if you did place any money on either of them, then I have bad news for you.

After beginning their 480 million kilometer journey — or, for you Americans watching the show, about 300 million miles — mid July last year, Mars gets visited by not just one, but two unmanned space probes just this February 10th. The first one, arriving at the 9th was United Arab Emirates’ Hope, followed by China’s Tianwen-1 just about a day after.

This amazing feat placed both countries as the fifth and sixth cultures from Earth to successfully be welcomed by our vermillion neighbor. The first four to make it there were, firstly of course, the USA, followed by, India, the old Soviet Union and Europe through the European Space Agency.

Actually, if we include NASA’s Perseverance arriving by the 18th, that puts Elon and Jeff way, way behind. Keep up, boys!

As of the current moment, Hope and Tianwen-1 are already orbiting the Martian atmosphere. A Herculean challenge that they completed with flying colors.

The amazing feat that these two spacecraft accomplished is already super impressive, considering that about half of missions sent to Mars were unsuccessful. You see how many crash-and-burns SpaceX missions had in its lifetime, right?

But, okay, I know that Mars appears to be an extremely popular destination for some of the most important entities and individuals in the world, but these missions did not go there just to have a vacation. Let’s talk about what these probes were sent there to do, shall we? Let’s begin with the first to get there, UAE’s flagship interplanetary mission, Hope…or Al-Amal, as locally known in Arabic.

UAE is not entirely a newbie in terms of sending instruments in space. Officially speaking, Hope is the fourth one in their resume. You can imagine the level of sophistication in the technology that they are bringing, with the history of space missions they have already launched.
Now, let’s move on to the next visitor to our sister planet and potential future home: China’s Tianwen-1. I’d like to talk about the name for a bit before going any further, because I just can’t get over the fact that it is an extremely poetic name.

One translation of the probe’s name is “a quest for the heavenly truth”.
Last but not the least, let’s now talk about the last visitor to Mars, NASA’s Perseverance. Or Percy for short. Pretty cute name, isn’t it?

Following a long line of predecessors, one including the popular names such as Opportunity and Curiosity, this probe is tasked with a mission to know more about the Red Planet. Upon arriving within the vicinity of Mars, it’s scheduled to land on the Jezero Crater.

And did I tell you that Percy didn’t come all by himself? The rover is also carrying Ingenuity, a robotic helicopter that will serve as a part of a handful of tech demonstrations that will be carried out by the rover. The mini helicopter is aimed to determine the feasibility of flight on the red planet. Moreover, Ingenuity will fly over the landing site of Perseverance to help plan its route better, and to look for targets that could be interesting to pick up.

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#InsaneCuriosity #MarsRace #MarsMission

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What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

Are you looking for a change of scenery? Are you tired of boring old Earth?
How would you like a new home away from home? Really far away from home. Like outside our Solar System far. What exoplanet would suit us best? Are there any pros? And more importantly, what are the cons?

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Hope: The First "Emirates Mars Mission"!

Hope: The First Emirates Mars Mission!

Every nation right now is racing to make contact with Mars, if not in person, then at least with a robotic spacecraft in preparations for humans to one day land on the red planet.

And I hope you’re all as excited as we are for a new nation joining the quest towards exploring Mars, we’re talking about the United Arab Emirates.

Yes, the United Arab Emirates is going to be the first Arab and gulf region country to send a scientific mission to the red planet on July 20th. How exciting!
China’s Tianwen -1 Mars Mission!
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The motivation for the mission started back in the year 2014, and along six years, the United Arab Emirates Space Agency and its collaborators around the world went into planning the mission and designing its probe, and now, the UAE nation’s dream is finally going to become a reality.

The official name of the mission is “Emirates Mars Mission” and the probe was given the name “Hope Probe” to represent the hope of the Emirati youth and nation to conquer space exploration starting with a mission towards Mars.

Fun fact, the word “Hope” in Arabic is “Amal”, to pronounce it correctly, think of George Clooney’s wife; “Amal Clooney”, it’s literally the same name!

The 200 million dollar mission will be worth every cent, not only for the massive scientific advancements, but also for being the first in the Arab region and the Middle East to push its limits and visit the red planet.

The “Emirates Mars Mission” will not be landing on Mars, it is designed as a probe to orbit the planet and gather information remotely. The probe is very light weight with only 1.35 Kilograms (2.97 pounds) including fuel, and dimensions up to 3 meter x 7.9 meters (9.8 feet x 25.9 feet) and that’s while the solar panels are open.

The probe is equipped with 600 watts solar panels to collect enough power for the equipment on board and a 1.85 meter (72 inch) antenna to communicate back and forth with Earth.

But what exactly will the probe be doing up there orbiting Mars?

The mission goals are aligned with the international goals of “The Mars Exploration Program Advisory Group”; an international group that decides the most important scientific questions to be answered regarding Mars.

The group proposes 4 major scientific goals, the “Emirates Mars Mission” is specially concerned with the second of these goals which is to understand the processes and history of climate on Mars, and more specifically, to study the lower and upper atmosphere of the planet.

These goals are further broken down into 3 scientific objectives:
1. Analysing the lower Martian atmosphere to understand the climate dynamics.
2. Analysing the upper Martian atmosphere to understand the weather changes and the escape of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
3. Identifying why Mars is losing Hydrogen and Oxygen into space.

In satisfying these objectives, the “Hope Probe” will be Mars’ first ever weather satellite; continuously monitoring Mars’ weather during all the seasons from an orbital inclination of 25 degrees and a minimum orbital distance of 20000 kilometers (12.4 thousands miles) to a maximum of 43000 kilometeres (26.7 thousands miles.)

The “Emirates Mars Mission” objectives will be realised by 3 instruments aboard the “Hope Probe”:

The first is the “Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer” or (EMIR) for short, this instrument will study the atmosphere of the red planet in the infrared spectrum of light, and it has a spatial resolution of 100 to 300 kilometers.

The spectrometer will scan Mars’ lower atmosphere to understand the distribution of water vapor and ice water as well as dust, and It will also observe the thermal conditions of Mars’ atmosphere.

The second is the “Emirates Exploration Imager” or (EXI) for short which is a camera that takes 12 megapixel high resolution coloured images of Mars and observes the Martian atmosphere in both the visible and the ultraviolet spectrums of light.

The visible light system has a surface resolution of 4.6 km per pixel when the probe is at the farthest point to the planet and a resolution of 2.2 km per pixel at the nearest point.

The ultraviolet light system on the other hand, has a surface resolution of 4.9 km per pixel at the farthest point, and a resolution of 2.3 km per pixel at the nearest point.
The control and operation of the “Hope Probe” will be a collaborative effort between facilities across the world not only in the United Arab Emirates, let’s start with the launch itself that will entirely be under the control of the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA.)

#InsaneCuriosity #HopeEmiratesMarsMission #HopeMarsMission #MarsFactsAndHistory

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