Tag Archives: earth

What If We Poured Concrete Into a Volcano?



If only there were a simple trick to stop a massive volcano from spewing out lava. Like maybe plugging it up with good old concrete. A massive volcanic explosion sends rock, lava and ash everywhere. Fire and destruction are all around you. If only there were a simple trick to stop an eruption. Like maybe plugging up those magma mountains with good old concrete. How could this wild idea be accomplished? Would concrete be able to withstand the pressure and heat? And would it do the trick or make things even more dangerous?

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#WhatIf #SpewingLava #Volcano #Concrete #Volcanology

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What If You Knew What Would Happen in 100 Years?



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A century of history flashes before your eyes. Not the past, but the future. And now you know how life would unfold over the next 100 years. What changes would happen to the planet over that time? What countries would become world leaders? And why would you not want to live in California? What will happen to the deep space probe Voyager 1? Will major earthquakes hit along the San Andreas Fault?

00:00 What would happen in 100 years?
02:37 Year 2025
03:37 Year 2037
04:24 Year 2050
05:10 Year 2060
05:47 Year 2068
06:22 Year 2090
07:13 Year 2100
07:38 Year 2121

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#Whatif #Population #ClimateChange #California #SanAndreasFault

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What If the Earth Was Actually Flat? (Extended)



If the Earth had an edge, I hope it would look like this. The edge of a flat Earth. I know, I know, we’ve talked about it before. But there’s something mesmerizing about it. A flat Earth solar eclipse. Diagonally growing trees. The great wall of ice, guarded by NASA, of course. The flat-Earthers sure have a great imagination. But what if they were right? How would the Earth hold up in space? Would it revolve around the Sun, or would the Sun rotate around it? And why would you never walk to the Earth’s edge?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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3 Nations Arrive On Mars!

3 Nations Arrive On Mars!

The Mars race to the red planet has long appeared to be exclusive to the biggest billionaires and their corporate backups, but someone else has crossed the white ribbon first. We’ll talk about these folks and more in today’s episode!
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If you’re like me who loves all the news going around about the red planet, you probably would have already heard about the biggest players in the game of getting to Mars first. Of course, first and foremost, there’s the ever popular SpaceX program by Elon Musk. Then we also have Blue Origin by Jeff Bezos.You can really tell that there’s really huge interest in bagging the medal of being the first corporate entity to bring Earth to Mars. I mean, for something to get two of the world’s biggest billionaires? I don’t think they are men who like to waste time on anything they wouldn’t believe have any value whatsoever. Be honest, guys. Who among these two did you place your bets on?
Well, if you did place any money on either of them, then I have bad news for you.

After beginning their 480 million kilometer journey — or, for you Americans watching the show, about 300 million miles — mid July last year, Mars gets visited by not just one, but two unmanned space probes just this February 10th. The first one, arriving at the 9th was United Arab Emirates’ Hope, followed by China’s Tianwen-1 just about a day after.

This amazing feat placed both countries as the fifth and sixth cultures from Earth to successfully be welcomed by our vermillion neighbor. The first four to make it there were, firstly of course, the USA, followed by, India, the old Soviet Union and Europe through the European Space Agency.

Actually, if we include NASA’s Perseverance arriving by the 18th, that puts Elon and Jeff way, way behind. Keep up, boys!

As of the current moment, Hope and Tianwen-1 are already orbiting the Martian atmosphere. A Herculean challenge that they completed with flying colors.

The amazing feat that these two spacecraft accomplished is already super impressive, considering that about half of missions sent to Mars were unsuccessful. You see how many crash-and-burns SpaceX missions had in its lifetime, right?

But, okay, I know that Mars appears to be an extremely popular destination for some of the most important entities and individuals in the world, but these missions did not go there just to have a vacation. Let’s talk about what these probes were sent there to do, shall we? Let’s begin with the first to get there, UAE’s flagship interplanetary mission, Hope…or Al-Amal, as locally known in Arabic.

UAE is not entirely a newbie in terms of sending instruments in space. Officially speaking, Hope is the fourth one in their resume. You can imagine the level of sophistication in the technology that they are bringing, with the history of space missions they have already launched.
Now, let’s move on to the next visitor to our sister planet and potential future home: China’s Tianwen-1. I’d like to talk about the name for a bit before going any further, because I just can’t get over the fact that it is an extremely poetic name.

One translation of the probe’s name is “a quest for the heavenly truth”.
Last but not the least, let’s now talk about the last visitor to Mars, NASA’s Perseverance. Or Percy for short. Pretty cute name, isn’t it?

Following a long line of predecessors, one including the popular names such as Opportunity and Curiosity, this probe is tasked with a mission to know more about the Red Planet. Upon arriving within the vicinity of Mars, it’s scheduled to land on the Jezero Crater.

And did I tell you that Percy didn’t come all by himself? The rover is also carrying Ingenuity, a robotic helicopter that will serve as a part of a handful of tech demonstrations that will be carried out by the rover. The mini helicopter is aimed to determine the feasibility of flight on the red planet. Moreover, Ingenuity will fly over the landing site of Perseverance to help plan its route better, and to look for targets that could be interesting to pick up.

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#InsaneCuriosity #MarsRace #MarsMission

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Einstein's Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

From what it is, to its impact on the world at large, join us as we explore Einstein’s Theory of Relativity made easy, and explain it so everyone can understand it. (Simplified)

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So where do we start with something as big and as complicated as the Theory of Relativity? I’m sure some of you wouldn’t even know what it is outside of its name, which is fine. But I’m sure you do know the man who came up with the idea, Albert Einstein. Einstein is revered as one of the smartest people to ever live, and he helped shape how we perceive both our world and our universe. So it might surprise you that this very brilliant man once started off as nothing more than a patent clerk. No, really, he did, and that’s part of the origin story to the Theory of Relativity.
Because one day, after doing his work at the patent office, he went on a trolley car to go home. And he would do this day after day after day. This is important because while he was on that car, he would think about the universe at large. He would ask himself questions and try to figure out the answers as best he could with the information he had. And one day, he was going away from a clock tower when he asked what would happen if the car he was on was going away from the clock tower…at the speed of light.
This may seem like an odd question to ask, but lightspeed travel is something that scientists are honestly trying to achieve right now, and these questions were truly the building blocks of this really happening. Anyway, back to the clock tower. Einstein theorized, as well as realized, that if he was moving the speed of light (which if you don’t know is 299,792,458 meters per second), the hands on the clock tower (meaning the minute hand and the hour hand) would quite literally appear to stop in place.
But, he also knew that while he himself was traveling at the speed of light and seeing everything stop more or less, everyone who was at the clock tower, and seeing things in “normal time” would not see them stop. The clock tower and its hands would keep ticking along as if nothing wrong.
Yet in this experiment, for Albert Einstein, time had literally slowed down, and it was at this moment that the “light bulb” went off in his head. Because it was through this experiment that he realized that if you go faster and faster through space, you’re actually causing time to go slower around you. But how was this possible if time was quite literally a constant force in the universe?
To try and answer this, Einstein would look to some of the other fathers of science to try and figure out the missing points in his equation. For example, he looked at the three laws of motion via Sir Isaac Newton. Newton notes that while objects do move at a certain speed, their values are never an absolute. Mainly because every speed we go at is based on a force imparted on something, or relative to something else. Such as how a car can go 65 miles per hour on a highway…but that’s only because the ground and friction ALLOW it to do so. No friction on the road? You’re not going that speed. Thus why he notes that every speed has to have “in respect to” another force or object that is allowing or perceiving that object’s speed.
However, in contrast, there is James Clark Maxwell, the father of electromagnetism, who notes that of all the things in the universe, it is light that is fixed. And as noted, light goes 299,792,458 meters per second. That will never change. That speed is another constant force in the universe. Anyone, anywhere in the world, or even anywhere in the universe will be able to determine that the speed of light is the same, it won’t change, and that’s part of the reason why the universe works like it does, because the speed of light is constant, right?
But therein lies the problem, or at least, Einstein realized that this was a problem. Because Newton said that no speed in the universe could be an absolute. But then Maxwell counters this by saving the speed of light is ALWAYS a constant. Which means that these two very universal and very accepted pieces of science are at a contradiction. Which is something you never want in the world of science, trust me.
If you’re still not getting the full picture of why this is a problem, here’s another thought experiment from Einstein to help explain it.
Imagine you are at a train station, and you are standing out on the platform when a storm comes. Then, out of the blue, two lightning bolts strike on either side of you. Because of your position in the middle of these lightning bolts, you perceive them at the exact same time, and the light reaches you at that same time.

Theory Of Relativity: Einstein’s Twin Paradox!

#InsaneCuriosity #Theory of Relativity #PhysicsHowTheUniverseWorks

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What If There Were Only 1,000 People Left on Earth?

What If There Were Only 1,000 People Left on Earth?

With so many amazing things happening in the world today, what could possibly go wrong? Well…A giant asteroid is barrelling on a collision course with Earth, and life as we know it is on the brink. After the smoke clears…
How do we start over? Where would we live? What might we do differently?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

Are you looking for a change of scenery? Are you tired of boring old Earth?
How would you like a new home away from home? Really far away from home. Like outside our Solar System far. What exoplanet would suit us best? Are there any pros? And more importantly, what are the cons?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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Hope: The First "Emirates Mars Mission"!

Hope: The First Emirates Mars Mission!

Every nation right now is racing to make contact with Mars, if not in person, then at least with a robotic spacecraft in preparations for humans to one day land on the red planet.

And I hope you’re all as excited as we are for a new nation joining the quest towards exploring Mars, we’re talking about the United Arab Emirates.

Yes, the United Arab Emirates is going to be the first Arab and gulf region country to send a scientific mission to the red planet on July 20th. How exciting!
China’s Tianwen -1 Mars Mission!
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The motivation for the mission started back in the year 2014, and along six years, the United Arab Emirates Space Agency and its collaborators around the world went into planning the mission and designing its probe, and now, the UAE nation’s dream is finally going to become a reality.

The official name of the mission is “Emirates Mars Mission” and the probe was given the name “Hope Probe” to represent the hope of the Emirati youth and nation to conquer space exploration starting with a mission towards Mars.

Fun fact, the word “Hope” in Arabic is “Amal”, to pronounce it correctly, think of George Clooney’s wife; “Amal Clooney”, it’s literally the same name!

The 200 million dollar mission will be worth every cent, not only for the massive scientific advancements, but also for being the first in the Arab region and the Middle East to push its limits and visit the red planet.

The “Emirates Mars Mission” will not be landing on Mars, it is designed as a probe to orbit the planet and gather information remotely. The probe is very light weight with only 1.35 Kilograms (2.97 pounds) including fuel, and dimensions up to 3 meter x 7.9 meters (9.8 feet x 25.9 feet) and that’s while the solar panels are open.

The probe is equipped with 600 watts solar panels to collect enough power for the equipment on board and a 1.85 meter (72 inch) antenna to communicate back and forth with Earth.

But what exactly will the probe be doing up there orbiting Mars?

The mission goals are aligned with the international goals of “The Mars Exploration Program Advisory Group”; an international group that decides the most important scientific questions to be answered regarding Mars.

The group proposes 4 major scientific goals, the “Emirates Mars Mission” is specially concerned with the second of these goals which is to understand the processes and history of climate on Mars, and more specifically, to study the lower and upper atmosphere of the planet.

These goals are further broken down into 3 scientific objectives:
1. Analysing the lower Martian atmosphere to understand the climate dynamics.
2. Analysing the upper Martian atmosphere to understand the weather changes and the escape of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
3. Identifying why Mars is losing Hydrogen and Oxygen into space.

In satisfying these objectives, the “Hope Probe” will be Mars’ first ever weather satellite; continuously monitoring Mars’ weather during all the seasons from an orbital inclination of 25 degrees and a minimum orbital distance of 20000 kilometers (12.4 thousands miles) to a maximum of 43000 kilometeres (26.7 thousands miles.)

The “Emirates Mars Mission” objectives will be realised by 3 instruments aboard the “Hope Probe”:

The first is the “Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer” or (EMIR) for short, this instrument will study the atmosphere of the red planet in the infrared spectrum of light, and it has a spatial resolution of 100 to 300 kilometers.

The spectrometer will scan Mars’ lower atmosphere to understand the distribution of water vapor and ice water as well as dust, and It will also observe the thermal conditions of Mars’ atmosphere.

The second is the “Emirates Exploration Imager” or (EXI) for short which is a camera that takes 12 megapixel high resolution coloured images of Mars and observes the Martian atmosphere in both the visible and the ultraviolet spectrums of light.

The visible light system has a surface resolution of 4.6 km per pixel when the probe is at the farthest point to the planet and a resolution of 2.2 km per pixel at the nearest point.

The ultraviolet light system on the other hand, has a surface resolution of 4.9 km per pixel at the farthest point, and a resolution of 2.3 km per pixel at the nearest point.
The control and operation of the “Hope Probe” will be a collaborative effort between facilities across the world not only in the United Arab Emirates, let’s start with the launch itself that will entirely be under the control of the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA.)

#InsaneCuriosity #HopeEmiratesMarsMission #HopeMarsMission #MarsFactsAndHistory

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