Tag Archives: gravity

What If Jupiter Swallowed Every Planet in the Solar System?



There is nothing scarier than thinking about all your personal data floating around the internet. By using @mineapp_company, you can safely reclaim your data and your privacy! Try Mine for FREE (for a limited time only) #sponsored:

You start your day hearing wild news. Jupiter has just swallowed Saturn. And it doesn’t stop there. Jupiter is on its way to swallow every planet in the Solar System. Jupiter has swallowed a planet before. Around 4.5 billion years ago, a protoplanet slammed into the young Jupiter. How big would Jupiter get? What would you see from Earth? Would Jupiter get rings like Saturn?

Transcript and sources:

Get our 100 best episodes in one mind-blowing book:

Join this channel to get access to perks:

Watch more what-if scenarios:
Planet Earth:
The Cosmos:
Technology:
Your Body:
Humanity:

T-shirts and merch:
Suggest an episode:
Newsletter:
Feedback and inquiries:

What If elsewhere:
Instagram:
Twitter:
Facebook:
What If in Spanish:
What If in Mandarin:
Podcast:

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

Produced with love by Underknown in Toronto:

#WhatIf #Jupiter #Saturn #ProtoPlanet #Ganymede

source

Einstein's Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

From what it is, to its impact on the world at large, join us as we explore Einstein’s Theory of Relativity made easy, and explain it so everyone can understand it. (Simplified)

Subscribe for more videos:

Watch Our “Wormhole Theory Explained – Breaking Spacetime!”

So where do we start with something as big and as complicated as the Theory of Relativity? I’m sure some of you wouldn’t even know what it is outside of its name, which is fine. But I’m sure you do know the man who came up with the idea, Albert Einstein. Einstein is revered as one of the smartest people to ever live, and he helped shape how we perceive both our world and our universe. So it might surprise you that this very brilliant man once started off as nothing more than a patent clerk. No, really, he did, and that’s part of the origin story to the Theory of Relativity.
Because one day, after doing his work at the patent office, he went on a trolley car to go home. And he would do this day after day after day. This is important because while he was on that car, he would think about the universe at large. He would ask himself questions and try to figure out the answers as best he could with the information he had. And one day, he was going away from a clock tower when he asked what would happen if the car he was on was going away from the clock tower…at the speed of light.
This may seem like an odd question to ask, but lightspeed travel is something that scientists are honestly trying to achieve right now, and these questions were truly the building blocks of this really happening. Anyway, back to the clock tower. Einstein theorized, as well as realized, that if he was moving the speed of light (which if you don’t know is 299,792,458 meters per second), the hands on the clock tower (meaning the minute hand and the hour hand) would quite literally appear to stop in place.
But, he also knew that while he himself was traveling at the speed of light and seeing everything stop more or less, everyone who was at the clock tower, and seeing things in “normal time” would not see them stop. The clock tower and its hands would keep ticking along as if nothing wrong.
Yet in this experiment, for Albert Einstein, time had literally slowed down, and it was at this moment that the “light bulb” went off in his head. Because it was through this experiment that he realized that if you go faster and faster through space, you’re actually causing time to go slower around you. But how was this possible if time was quite literally a constant force in the universe?
To try and answer this, Einstein would look to some of the other fathers of science to try and figure out the missing points in his equation. For example, he looked at the three laws of motion via Sir Isaac Newton. Newton notes that while objects do move at a certain speed, their values are never an absolute. Mainly because every speed we go at is based on a force imparted on something, or relative to something else. Such as how a car can go 65 miles per hour on a highway…but that’s only because the ground and friction ALLOW it to do so. No friction on the road? You’re not going that speed. Thus why he notes that every speed has to have “in respect to” another force or object that is allowing or perceiving that object’s speed.
However, in contrast, there is James Clark Maxwell, the father of electromagnetism, who notes that of all the things in the universe, it is light that is fixed. And as noted, light goes 299,792,458 meters per second. That will never change. That speed is another constant force in the universe. Anyone, anywhere in the world, or even anywhere in the universe will be able to determine that the speed of light is the same, it won’t change, and that’s part of the reason why the universe works like it does, because the speed of light is constant, right?
But therein lies the problem, or at least, Einstein realized that this was a problem. Because Newton said that no speed in the universe could be an absolute. But then Maxwell counters this by saving the speed of light is ALWAYS a constant. Which means that these two very universal and very accepted pieces of science are at a contradiction. Which is something you never want in the world of science, trust me.
If you’re still not getting the full picture of why this is a problem, here’s another thought experiment from Einstein to help explain it.
Imagine you are at a train station, and you are standing out on the platform when a storm comes. Then, out of the blue, two lightning bolts strike on either side of you. Because of your position in the middle of these lightning bolts, you perceive them at the exact same time, and the light reaches you at that same time.

Theory Of Relativity: Einstein’s Twin Paradox!

#InsaneCuriosity #Theory of Relativity #PhysicsHowTheUniverseWorks

source

Discovered Two Super Earth Exoplanets Orbiting A Star! (Gliese 887b And Gliese 887c)

Discovered Two Super Earth Exoplanets Orbiting A Star! (Gliese 887b And Gliese 887c)

From what this new exoplanet is, to what it could mean for our understanding of the universe as a whole, and more! Join us as we reveal to you the discovered two super-Earth exoplanets orbiting a star! (Gliese 887b And Gliese 887c)
——————————————————————————————-
Subscribe for more videos:
Business Enquiries: lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com
——————————————————————————————-
Humanity has a goal to explore the stars, a goal that may find itself getting a boost in feasibility by the end of the decade. But we also know that to look outside our solar system is important because we can learn even more from the planets and stars that range across the solar system and see how it reflects what is near us. To that end, one of our greatest goals is to find and research as many exoplanets (a planet which orbits a star outside the solar system) as we can and see what they are like and what we can learn from them. Which is good, because we just found a major discovery which might just change things forever.
Because looking at the brightest red dwarf star in the sky may have presented the best chance astronomers have yet to analyze the atmospheres of alien worlds — and perhaps detect whether those worlds have life. This is according to a new study that was recently released.
Scientists focused on the red dwarf star GJ 887, also known as Gliese 887. (Red dwarfs are the most common kind of star in the galaxy, and weigh between 7.5% and 50% the mass of the sun.) At a distance of about 10.7 light-years from Earth, Gliese 887 is the twelfth-closest star. Furthermore, at visible wavelengths, Gliese 887 is the brightest red dwarf in the sky, and with nearly half the sun’s mass, Gliese 887 is the heaviest red dwarf star within about 20 light-years of Earth. That may sound like a lot of needless stats but when it comes to stars you need to know as much about them to fully understand their power, potential, and lifespan.
Previous work found that many red dwarfs host planetary systems, ones usually made up of multiple small worlds. Still, “we’ve been looking for exoplanets orbiting Gliese 887 for nearly 20 years, and while we saw hints of a planetary signal, it wasn’t strong enough to convince ourselves that it was a planet,” study lead author Sandra Jeffers, an astrophysicist at the University of Göttingen in Germany, told Space.com.
But that has now changed in a major way.
Pressing forward, the researchers examined Gliese 887 for 80 nights in 2018. They relied on the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) instrument at La Silla Observatory in Chile, combining this data with archival measurements of the star spanning nearly two decades.
Astronomers use two strategies to discover most exoplanets, or worlds beyond our solar system. One method relies on how distant worlds regularly block out a fraction of light from their stars as they pass in front of their stars from the observer’s perspective. However, this method will only spot planets that pass through the line of sight between Earth and their stars, meaning it will only detect a small fraction of exoplanets.
Instead, the scientists in this latest work looked for any wobbles from Gliese 887 due to gravitational tugs from orbiting planets. This was where their breakthrough came from. They found the red dwarf has at least two “super-Earth” exoplanets, dubbed Gliese 887 b and Gliese 887 c. The former is about 4.2 times Earth’s mass and orbits just 6.8% of an astronomical unit (AU) from its star (one astronomical unit is the average distance between Earth and the sun), whereas the latter is about 7.6 times Earth’s mass and orbits 12% of an AU from the red dwarf.
To be honest, finding even one exoplanet there after two decades of finding nothing would’ve been momentous in its own right, but finding two? That is something truly special. And yet, that wasn’t all.
The researchers also found evidence for a possible third planet farther out from Gliese 887. Although the red dwarf’s two confirmed planets are likely too hot for life as we know it on Earth, this potential third planet might lie within the star’s habitable zone, where surface temperatures are suitable to host liquid water. Which by our definitions is important to have life, which is one of the many reasons we search for exoplanets so we can see if there’s another planet of life out there.

#InsaneCuriosity #Exoplanets #Gliese887

source

What is the Great Attractor?

What is the Great Attractor?

Is there anything in the universe that’s just so eccentric, so breathtaking, and so beyond our understanding, that it gets a badass name? That’s what we’ll find out together in today’s episode! What is the Great Attractor?
——————————————————————————————————————————————————-
Subscribe for more videos:
Business Enquiries: Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com
——————————————————————————————————————————————————-
Okay, let’s do a bit of thought experiment to kick off the show.

I bet everybody here has been to the mall, right? Have you ever experienced a time when you are walking, and suddenly, you saw a bunch of people moving towards something?

Now, you don’t know what it is. You don’t know if it’s some food stall that’s really hitting the sales, or a new product being sold. You just know that it’s pulling people towards it. And to top it all off, you, with your ever curious mind, gets drawn to it as well! So, before you know it, you start walking.

It’s crazy, right? You don’t know why people are gathering, and yet you are attracted to that place where you’re absolutely clueless about what’s there to see, or even if what’s there could harm you. You just know that you’re curious and you want to find out. Something that you don’t understand is too charismatic for you to resist.

That, my dear friends, is the characteristic of our topic for today. A weird thing in space that is so bizarre, so unimaginably weird, and so difficult to grasp, that all we can do is to give it an appropriate name, The Great Attractor.

I hope we can say that The Great Attractor is a gigantic floating Harry Styles or Captain Ri from CLOY lightyears away in space from us, but that’s the problem. We don’t exactly know what it is. But we don’t actually know, so why not? It may actually be Henry Cavill in space.

Is he still popular now? I’m not keeping up with Hollywood stuff. Moving on.

Okay, here’s what we know about it so far. We don’t know what it is, but we know that it’s there. We’re sure it’s there, and we can see signs that it’s there.

It’s like having a gigantic stuffed toy in a very, very dark room. We can touch the fur, and we can feel how soft it is, maybe even smell it a bit, but that’s all the information we have. We’re not sure if it’s really a stuffed toy. It could be something else entirely.

So what are our observations leading us to think that it’s there? What are our touches to the fur and our sniffs to it?

We know that Hubble’s observations in 1929 lead us to believe that the universe is actually expanding, after he realized that a lot of galaxies are moving away from us. And not just moving away, it’s moving at an extremely fast pace faster than the speed of light.

This phenomenon is now something that we know as the Hubble flow: the movement of the galaxies due to the expansion of the universe.

To make that more visually appealing, say that you have a balloon that hasn’t been blown up yet. To add a little more playfulness, let’s say you decided to draw some random dots on it.

Now, you can measure the distance between the dots you made in the balloon, right? Okay, say at this point, you find a pump and you start blowing air into the balloon. Naturally, the balloon expands. But what else is happening here? The dots you drew earlier are now moving apart from one another. If earlier, one dot is a centimeter from another, now it’s maybe 5 centimeters.

The dot didn’t move, but it’s now farther away from the other because where it’s drawn at expanded.

The universe does this as well. It expands in a way similar to what we described in the balloon analogy. The galaxies are moving apart from one another at some velocity, so we expect them to be farther and farther from one another at a constant rate, right?

Oddly, this is not what scientists observe to be actually happening. Instead, they see a lot of galaxies seemingly gravitate towards a region in space. Even our very own Milky Way galaxy! The Great Attractor!

What scientists are sure of is that whatever it is, it’s definitely one powerful gravitational anomaly.

So how exactly did scientists arrive at this conclusion? That we are heading something so mysterious and puzzling?

Well, firstly, there’s this thing called expectation. The universe is expanding at an astoundingly fast rate of 2.2 million kilometers per hour!

So keeping this in mind, then, if we try to measure the speed at which a nearby galaxy is moving away from us, say, Andromeda, then we ought to get that speed right? Apparently not. This is one of the first odd measurements scientists found.

#InsaneCuriosity #TheGreatAttractor #HowTheUniverseWorks

source

What If the Universe Isn't Uniform?

What If the Universe Isn’t Uniform?

In a galaxy far away, gravity didn’t quite work the way it does on Earth. And the speed at which everything moved was really weird too. Maybe, some places in our vast Universe just don’t abide by our laws of physics? And if that was true, what would it mean for us?

Transcript and sources:
Subscribe to our second channel called “How to Survive”:

Can you translate this episode into another language? Add subtitles and we will link your YouTube channel in the description:

Watch more what-if scenarios:
Planet Earth:
The Cosmos:
Technology:
Your Body:
Humanity:

T-shirts and merch:
Suggest an episode:
Newsletter:
Feedback and inquiries:

What If elsewhere:
Instagram:
Twitter:
Facebook:
What If in Spanish:
What If in Mandarin:
Podcast:

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

Produced with love by Underknown in Toronto:

source

What If We Lost Gravity for 5 Seconds?

What If We Lost Gravity for 5 Seconds?

Unless you’re an astronaut, you probably don’t spend a lot of time thinking about gravity. We all take gravity for granted, and it would be hard not to!
Aside from a tiny sliver of the world’s population, most humans don’t know a life without gravity. From the Universe to our Solar System, to each planet, all the way down to our own bodies, gravity holds everything together. But since we tend to see gravity as a given, it’s hard for us to imagine just how helpless we’d be without it… until it’s actually gone.

Subscribe to the What If Discussed podcast:
Listen to the world’s top thinkers in science, astronomy, technology, academia and futurism pondering your most popular “what if” questions.

Check out our second channel called “How to Survive”:

Join our Patreon community and help make What If better:

Can you translate this episode into another language? Add subtitles and we will link your YouTube channel in the description:

Watch more what-if scenarios:
Planet Earth:
The Cosmos:
Technology:
Your Body:
Humanity:

T-shirts and merch:
Suggest an episode (detailed):
Newsletter:
Feedback and inquiries:

What If elsewhere:
Instagram:
Twitter:
Facebook:
What If in Spanish:
What If in Mandarin:

Our thumbnail was created by Alex. Check out more of his art on his Instagram:

Thank you to our loyal patrons:
Gabe
Steve H.

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

Produced with love by Underknown in Toronto:

source

The Power Of Neutron Stars!

The Power Of Neutron Stars!

We know how terrifying and powerful black holes can be, but what comes second place in terms to it in terms of overall awesomeness? Join us today as we learn about neutron stars!

Subscribe for more videos:

One of the most popular outer space entities that pop culture love to revolve about is the black hole. We’ve seen various movies, TV programs, even some songs talk about how magnificent and mysterious they are. But what if black holes aren’t the only objects that we should be amazed with?

Of course we have a lot of picks for that matter, but the particular thing we would talk about today is the star that ranks number 1 in the universe in terms of density: the neutron stars.

Okay, astro fans, I can hear you argue and say “No, black holes are the densest objects in the universe!” But let me tell you this: remember how black holes work? They are effectively stars that collapsed to an almost zero volume, which results in their enormous gravitational force. If they effectively are dimensionless, can we really say that they are “objects”?

We can’t be really sure, and that’s something that only philosophy can answer, but while we’re here at the subject of definitions and what we actually know for certain, let’s just say the one we can categorize as the densest object, quote-unquote, is the neutron star.

And no, a neutron star is not a subatomic particle which grew to the size of the star. It isn’t also a bunch of neutrons agreeing to somehow collectively come together to form a humongous star. Although we can effectively say that a neutron star is like a giant atom, we’ll get to that later.

For now, I want to discuss how neutron stars are born and why they are like Phoenixes: how from the ashes of their old corpses, they rise up and fly with their new, replenished lives!

I know you already know this if you’re an astro buff, but to some of our viewers out there who are new, first of all, welcome! We hope we spark your curiosity more through our videos!

Anyway, stars were discovered to follow some kind of lifecycle, just like us living beings on Earth. They too, get born, have a childhood phase, then grow to adulthood, then also die, after certain circumstances.

A star’s usual routine involves fusing hydrogen into helium. Quite honestly, in its lifetime, that’s all it ever does. Now, as we know from basic nuclear physics, when we fuse atoms together, it creates energy. The energy that the fusion in the star creates is countered by the gravitational force towards its center, effectively keeping the balance and preventing it from collapsing towards its center. As long as this goes on, everything is good and well at a star’s life.

But of course, like all lives, stars experience a tipping point in theirs.

Remember how stars burn hydrogen to fuse to helium? Well, eventually, stars run out of hydrogen to fuse, so they fuse helium instead, forming elements such as carbon and oxygen. The energy pushes out the borders of the star causing it to move to its giant phase, until the pressure from electron degeneracy collapses the core of the star, and expelling its outer layer leaving a white dwarf.

For heavy mass stars, a number of times larger than the mass of our own Sun, the story is different.

The same as earlier, when the star runs out of hydrogen to fuse, it begins to fuse heavier elements. The difference this time is that the collapse caused by gravity is so extremely strong, way stronger than what we described earlier, that the fusion goes to Neon, to Oxygen, to Silicon, then finally to Iron.

As this happens, the outer layer of the star begins to fatten up faster as time goes by.

When the core of the star is finally iron, fusion can no longer take place, as iron is stubborn this way. We can imagine at this point, there is no more energy resulting from fusion. So what if that happens? The own weight of the star collapses in itself, effectively crushing it to the size of up to around a 10 kilometer radius. It’s like compressing the star to about the size of Malta!

Now, we know how subatomic particles don’t want to get near each other, right? We can practically say that an atom is made of empty space. However, the strength of the gravitational force that occurs when a heavy mass star collapses crushes this space in between, merging the protons and electrons together to form neutrons, with some neutrinos in excess.

But the extravaganza of energy doesn’t end there! See, neutrons hate being compressed towards one another, too. Just like protons and electrons. The collapse can only occur up to a certain moment where the neutrons form a lattice-like structure, the crushing in stops. By the way, this sudden halt is what we call neutron degeneracy pressure.

#InsaneCuriosity#NeutronStars #HowTheUniverseWorks

source

What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?

What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?

From what they are, to where they might go, and beyond! Join me as we explore the question of, “where do black holes lead to?”

Subscribe for more videos:

Before we dive into the potential pathways that Black Holes may have, it’s important to know exactly what they are. Because while you might have a loose definition as to what they are and what they do, they’re actually far more complex than you might realize. Which is why many people in NASA and other space programs are fascinated by them.
If you’re looking for a technical definition, this is how NASA describes Black Holes:
“A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space. This can happen when a star is dying.”
This singularity as it is often called is a bit of a mystery in space, and for a very good reason. You see, black holes can form in large sizes, small sizes, and sometimes they don’t even need a fully fledged star to form at all! Which is scary in the sense that it means black holes can form in various ways.
Plus, since no light can actually escape them, it means that they can’t technically be seen by anyone. That being said, it’s easy to “see their work”, as the intense gravity of the Black Holes is enough to stretch objects from their “starting point” and slowly pull them to the Black Hole. This is known as spaghettification, because like a stretched piece of spaghetti, the object will get thinner and thinner until nothings exists but particles. And if you think that a Black Hole is limited in what it can absorb, you would be wrong. Very wrong in fact. If it is close enough, it’ll break down a star, a planet, multiple stars and planets at once, etc. It’s a question of range more than anything.
But there’s a catch to that, as you won’t be able to observe the spaghettification yourself. Why? Remember, no light escapes the void that is the Black Hole, so because of that, you’ll see the last known position of the object that light allows you to see. It’ll seem like they’re stuck in place and slowly going away until they’re gone. When in fact, they or it will be slowly pulled apart.
As we noted earlier, one of the main ways for a Black Hole to be born is to have a star collapse upon itself with such pressure that a Black Hole is a result. However, technically speaking, just about anything in the universe can become a Black Hole. How’s that for a scary thought?
It’s true though, and that’s one of the big “scaling” factors that you need to take into account when you’re talking about Black Holes. In fact, there’s actually a scarier thought that you need to consider, and that’s that black holes could technically be all around you right now. The only reason you’re not feeling their affects is that they’re not large enough to exert their own gravity.
The scale of a Black Hole is referred to as the Schwarzschild Radius. And becoming a Black Hole is impendent on you becoming so small and so dense that you can fit into this radius, and then potentially expand upon it. For example, a human being can become a Black Hole if condensed enough. However, the pressure needed to do that would not only be enormous, you could have to be shrunk 1 sextillion times smaller than a grain of sand. That’s REALLY small.

But that raises the question that we posed earlier, mainly, where do black holes lead to? I mean, if they can be of all sizes, and be anywhere from the size of a massive galaxy to the spec of sand on a beach, how can they lead to anywhere? How does that work? Would it work at all?
In the words of one scientist, “Who knows?”
“Falling through an event horizon is literally passing beyond the veil — once someone falls past it, nobody could ever send a message back,” he said. “They’d be ripped to pieces by the enormous gravity, so I doubt anyone falling through would get anywhere.”
Allow me to back up a little bit. Remember the whole “spagheticfication” thing I was talking about earlier? Well, the place that you would be “stretched to” is the horizon line of the black hole. Think of a black hole like a funnel. The big end of the funnel is the black hole that you “see” in space, and the rest of it is the core of the black hole that is hidden beneath its intense gravity. Now, if black holes DID lead somewhere, then like the funnel, you would have an access point through the core that you could go to. You get it?
The problem here is that most scientists believe based on their understanding of black holes that a horizon line is what awaits you at the end. So if you think about the funnel again, think about pinching the back end of it so that nothing could get out of said funnel. That’s what a lot of people think is in the center of a black hole, a literal end point. Which would be a problem for those who think it would lead anywhere…because it wouldn’t. It would end, o

source

What If Every Satellite Fell to Earth?

What If Every Satellite Fell to Earth?

Thousands of satellites and pieces of debris currently orbit our Earth. They provide us with television, internet, and communications. But what if all these satellites suddenly went offline? And then came crashing down to Earth? What would a crashing satellite do to the Earth? How many satellites would come falling down?

Transcript and sources:

Subscribe to our second channel called “How to Survive”:

Can you translate this episode into another language? Add subtitles and we will link your YouTube channel in the description:

Watch more what-if scenarios:
Planet Earth:
The Cosmos:
Technology:
Your Body:
Humanity:

T-shirts and merch:
Suggest an episode:
Newsletter:
Feedback and inquiries:

What If elsewhere:
Instagram:
Twitter:
Facebook:
What If in Spanish:
What If in Mandarin:
Podcast:

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

Produced with love by Underknown in Toronto:

source