Tag Archives: how the universe works

What Is Dark Matter?

Have you ever wondered what exactly is the universe made of?
According to the cosmological model, our universe was born 13.7 billions years ago, by a huge e*plosion that gave birth to our space like we know it nowadays:
the Big Bang. Everything that exists was born in that immense e*plosion.
Subscribe for more videos:
Business Enquiries: Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com
Science development led us to more and more sophisticated and accurate technology to investigate the cosmos, and little by little astronomers and physicists have learned a lot about the universe, discovering stars, stardust, planets, satellites, asteroids, galaxies, nebulae, clusters of galaxies and so on…Until recently we thought to be well advanced in the comprehension of matter distribution around the universe, nevertheless, starting from the last century,
observations suggest that there is far more to discover!

As a matter of fact, all that exists in the universe seems to be much more than what we can detect. The mass we can see and measure is only a minimum fraction of the whole universe. Yes, because the larger amount of matter is invisible and undetectable by our instruments. It’s like an immense halo that permeates the cosmos without emitting, absorbing and reflecting nor light neither electromagnetic wave.
This is the dark side of the universe.
Now physicists assess that only the 15% of the matter in the universe is made of detectable ordinary mass. The overwhelming majority is made up of something that we can’t detect directly, so scientists called it “dark matter”. The name dark is due to the fact that it doesn’t shine, it doesn’t absorb, it doesn’t reflect light or any other electromagnetic radiation, we detect its presence by indirect effects only. It’s like a phantom, we can’t see it, it’s completely invisible.

Wait, what? How is that possible?
Curious to know how? Stick with us and we will tell you how are things in this video!

what is dark matter?
what exactly is made of?
where can we find it?
how can we know that it exists and how we measure it?
How is it arranged in the universe?
How much dark matter?

To answer to all these questions we need to step back
so, let’s rewind a bit the tape and go back in time.


Since the end of 19th to the beginning of 20th century, many scientists were interested in so-called “obscure stars and dark gases”, little luminous matter that couldn’t be identified with telescopes.
In 1877 Italian priest Angelo Secchi, expert in stellar spectroscopy, in a paper, asked himself questions about the presence of scattered dark masses in space.

In 1933 the swiss physicist Fritz Zwicky was trying to understand the behaviour of clusters of galaxies. In particular, while observing a cluster of a thousand galaxies in the “Coma Berenices”, 150 million light-years far from here, he found some anomalies in their motion. In fact, they were rotating with a speed about 100 time faster than what the theory expected, as if the total mass of the cluster was about 400 times higher than it was.
In other words, the gravity effect of the cluster was too low for such fast orbits.
Nevertheless, so far, this was considered an issue due to a mistake in the process of measurement, because of technical limitation. It was essentially believed that the missing mass was made of faint stars, planets, meteor, scattered gas in interstellar spaces.

2nd evidence of dark matter: THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSE EFFECT

Nowadays we have another instrument to assess the amount of dark matter in the galaxies.
According to Einstein’s general relativity, if we interpose a mass between a distant electromagnetic source and an object that we’re observing, since the mass curves space-time, this mass will act as a lens to bend the light from this source. The more massive an object, the more lensing is observed. By measuring the distortion geometry, the mass of the object can be deduced.
“If You happen to see any content that is yours, and we didn’t give credit in the right manner please let us know at: Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com and we will correct it immediately”

“Some of our visual content is under an Attribution-ShareAlike license. ( in it’s different versions such as 1.0, 2.0, 3,0 and 4.0 – permitting comercial sharing with attribution given in each picture accordingly in the video.”

Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/Esa
Credits: Flickr



What is the Great Attractor?

What is the Great Attractor?

Is there anything in the universe that’s just so eccentric, so breathtaking, and so beyond our understanding, that it gets a badass name? That’s what we’ll find out together in today’s episode! What is the Great Attractor?
Subscribe for more videos:
Business Enquiries: Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com
Okay, let’s do a bit of thought experiment to kick off the show.

I bet everybody here has been to the mall, right? Have you ever experienced a time when you are walking, and suddenly, you saw a bunch of people moving towards something?

Now, you don’t know what it is. You don’t know if it’s some food stall that’s really hitting the sales, or a new product being sold. You just know that it’s pulling people towards it. And to top it all off, you, with your ever curious mind, gets drawn to it as well! So, before you know it, you start walking.

It’s crazy, right? You don’t know why people are gathering, and yet you are attracted to that place where you’re absolutely clueless about what’s there to see, or even if what’s there could harm you. You just know that you’re curious and you want to find out. Something that you don’t understand is too charismatic for you to resist.

That, my dear friends, is the characteristic of our topic for today. A weird thing in space that is so bizarre, so unimaginably weird, and so difficult to grasp, that all we can do is to give it an appropriate name, The Great Attractor.

I hope we can say that The Great Attractor is a gigantic floating Harry Styles or Captain Ri from CLOY lightyears away in space from us, but that’s the problem. We don’t exactly know what it is. But we don’t actually know, so why not? It may actually be Henry Cavill in space.

Is he still popular now? I’m not keeping up with Hollywood stuff. Moving on.

Okay, here’s what we know about it so far. We don’t know what it is, but we know that it’s there. We’re sure it’s there, and we can see signs that it’s there.

It’s like having a gigantic stuffed toy in a very, very dark room. We can touch the fur, and we can feel how soft it is, maybe even smell it a bit, but that’s all the information we have. We’re not sure if it’s really a stuffed toy. It could be something else entirely.

So what are our observations leading us to think that it’s there? What are our touches to the fur and our sniffs to it?

We know that Hubble’s observations in 1929 lead us to believe that the universe is actually expanding, after he realized that a lot of galaxies are moving away from us. And not just moving away, it’s moving at an extremely fast pace faster than the speed of light.

This phenomenon is now something that we know as the Hubble flow: the movement of the galaxies due to the expansion of the universe.

To make that more visually appealing, say that you have a balloon that hasn’t been blown up yet. To add a little more playfulness, let’s say you decided to draw some random dots on it.

Now, you can measure the distance between the dots you made in the balloon, right? Okay, say at this point, you find a pump and you start blowing air into the balloon. Naturally, the balloon expands. But what else is happening here? The dots you drew earlier are now moving apart from one another. If earlier, one dot is a centimeter from another, now it’s maybe 5 centimeters.

The dot didn’t move, but it’s now farther away from the other because where it’s drawn at expanded.

The universe does this as well. It expands in a way similar to what we described in the balloon analogy. The galaxies are moving apart from one another at some velocity, so we expect them to be farther and farther from one another at a constant rate, right?

Oddly, this is not what scientists observe to be actually happening. Instead, they see a lot of galaxies seemingly gravitate towards a region in space. Even our very own Milky Way galaxy! The Great Attractor!

What scientists are sure of is that whatever it is, it’s definitely one powerful gravitational anomaly.

So how exactly did scientists arrive at this conclusion? That we are heading something so mysterious and puzzling?

Well, firstly, there’s this thing called expectation. The universe is expanding at an astoundingly fast rate of 2.2 million kilometers per hour!

So keeping this in mind, then, if we try to measure the speed at which a nearby galaxy is moving away from us, say, Andromeda, then we ought to get that speed right? Apparently not. This is one of the first odd measurements scientists found.

#InsaneCuriosity #TheGreatAttractor #HowTheUniverseWorks


What Caused The Big Bang?

What Caused The Big Bang?

The Universe began not with a whimper but with a Bang! Everything in this Universe and the Universe itself came into existence because of the commonly told Big Bang.
Subscribe for more videos:
Business Enquiries: lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com
It all started when in 1922, a Russian Meteorologist, Alexander Friedmann proposed that the universe might be expanding. In a very rare blunder, Albert Einstein, when came to know about this, rejected his theory and with his erroneous calculations proved him wrong. Five years earlier, Einstein had published the Static model of the universe and was very convinced that it was correct. He claimed Friedmann’s theory to be violating the conservation of energy. After eight months, however, Einstein admitted his mistake and published a retraction. The Equation of General Relativity allows for the possibility of an Expanding Universe.
Today this Big Bang theory is an accepted idea of cosmology. The Expansion of the Universe was first observed by Vesto Slipher in the Early 1920s and in 1929, Edwin Hubble who had access to some world’s largest telescopes gave the Hubble Law. According to it, every distant galaxy is moving away from each other with a velocity proportional to its distance. The farther away a galaxy is, greater is the velocity with which it moves away. Then Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected a background of microwave radiation known as the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) radiations today, coming to Earth from all the directions. It was an afterglow of the primordial, hot and dense Fireball. Today, with the data collected from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite fits perfectly with the Big Bang and that it accounted for the light nuclear isotopes like deuterium, hydrogen, helium-3 and others. The Big Bang theory is a success but in its traditional form as it was proposed is incomplete. Though it’s called the Big Bang Theory, it does not tell us anything about the Bang! It’s the theory of what happened after the Big Bang, describing how the universe cooled and expanded, and how mater formed different Stars and Galaxies. The theory does not tell us anything about the underlying physics of this explosio*. It not even mentions what caused the Bang, what Bange*, why it Bange* and what happened before the Bang! The inflationary cosmos explains this and we will discuss the physics behind it in this video.
Could the Big Bang have been caused by the gigantic bag of TNT, or a thermonuclear explosio*? Or maybe a gigantic ball of matter collided with a gigantic ball of anti-matter. In fact, none of these events are responsible for the Big Bang and start of our Universe. The Big Bang had two very special and distinct features that differentiated it from any typical explanation.
First, On large scales Big Bang was far more homogenous than any ordinary explosio*. We must clarify you first while discussing homogeneity, that the Universe is inhomogeneous in many ways. New York differs from California and so are the Stars, galaxies and the clusters scattered through the space in a complex pattern. Cosmologically, these are all small scale. On a large scale, like if we divide the Universe into cubes of 300 million light years or more. We would find that each cube resembles the others in all its properties like mass density, light output, etc. The biggest evidence of it is the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB)  Radiations and data from the COBE satellite. We would need a brief history about the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to explain the uniformity of our Universe. The Early Universe was boiling and dense and it would rip apart the electrons from the atoms which resulted in a plasma that filled the space. This  plasma was very opaque. So the protons making up the Cosmic Microwave Background radiations, were absorbed and re-emitted constantly. After about 300,000 years the universe cooled to form a transparent plasma of neutral atoms. Since then, the photons have travelled on a straight path and provide us an image of a universe that was 300,000 years old.
Normally such uniformity is easy to explain, because anything comes to a uniform temperature when left undisturbed for a long time. But in the Big Bang theory, the universe develops quickly, leaving no time for the universe to evolve and uniformity to be established. For the sake of discussion lets pretend that the universe contains blue creatures, each having a furnace and refrigerator and have the task to create a uniform temperature.
#InsaneCuriosity #TheBigBang


9 Strangest Galaxies In The Universe!

9 Strangest Galaxies In The Universe!

Subscribe for more videos:

From galaxies that are shaped weirdly, to ones that have unique properties, join me as I show you the strangest galaxies in the universe!
9. ESO 137-001
I want you to think about the “shapes” of universes. Depending on the pictures you look at, you likely think of things like the spirals that many galaxies are believed to be shaped as. But in the case of ESO 137-001, that isn’t exactly the case. Because this galaxy…is shaped like a Jellyfish.
No, really, the spiral form of the galaxy is still there. BUT, it also has a “tail” that is formed by stars that are in its “wake” if you will, and it’s quite a tail as it extends over 260,000 light years into space!

8. NGC 1052-DF2
Ok, this one was weird in context as I’ll explain. You see, in 2018, the Hubble Space Telescope (one of the most important pieces of technology we have in terms of mapping space) found a galaxy known as NGC 1052-DF2. When scientists and astronomers looked at the galaxy though, they felt that something was missing. Mainly, there was a lack of Dark Matter, and that should’ve been impossible.
“Dark matter is conventionally believed to be an integral part of all galaxies — the glue that holds them together and the underlying scaffolding upon which they are built,” explains co-author Allison Merritt from Yale University and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany.

7. MACS 2129-1
The place known as MACS 2129-1 is definitely a galaxy that stands out for a whole host of reasons. Not the least of which is because it’s what’s known as a “No life Galaxy”. To be clear, there is life in the form of stars and planets within it, that’s not the issue. But, the galaxy is no longer “active”, meaning that it’s not making anymore stars despite it being over 10 billion years old.

6. The Andromeda galaxy
Arguably the most famous galaxy in the universe outside the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy is one that has led many people to wonder what is just outside our own galaxy, mainly because it’s our neighbor. Not just that, it’s our largest neighbor by a wide margin, and there’s a very good reason for that. Mainly, the Andromeda Galaxy is known as a “cannibal galaxy”.
What does that mean? Well, as the title describes, it actually collides with and devours other galaxies in order to make itself bigger:
“Andromeda has a much bigger and more complex stellar halo than the Milky Way, which indicates that it has cannibalized many more galaxies, possibly larger ones,” lead study author Dougal Mackey, an astronomer at Australian National University, said in a statement. “Knowing what kind of a monster our galaxy is up against is useful in finding out the Milky Way’s ultimate fate.”

So, remember the Jellyfish Galaxy we talked about a little while ago? Well, meet its cousin, the Tadpole Galaxy. This one is very on the nose in terms of its name because of the fact that it has a LONG tail that is attached to a body that reminds scientists of a tadpole. So looking at this you may wonder, “How did this happen?” According to the ones who found it, it’s a remnant of sorts from a galaxy that collided with another.
4. W2246-0526
If this list has shown you anything so far, it’s that the state of our universe is very much in a state of flux. But what you might not realize is that while some galaxies do collide with each other, others go and just steal things from one another. They alter shapes, steal stars, and sometimes even become brighter. Which is the case with W2246-0526:

3. Little Cub
Found in the Ursa Major Constellation, there is a dwarf galaxy known fondly as the “Little Cub”, and it’s one that has scientists very curious despite its impending doom. Why is that? Because the “Little Cub” as it is known is a galaxy that is dormant, and it has remained unchanged for about 13.7 billion years. If you know the alleged history of the universe, that would mean that it has been the same since the beginning of the universe more or less.

2. The Petal Galaxy
Let’s dig back into the visuals of galaxies for a bit. There are many galaxies out there in the universe that are growing at various rates as we’ve shown. But ESO 381-12 is different. Not only is this one growing, it’s growing in a way and in a shape that is truly baffling scientists. How so? Well, it looks like a flower in bloom, and the “petals” as they are known aren’t symmetrical.

1. Messier 83
15 million light years away in the Hydra is the galaxy known as Messier 83, and it is a galaxy that has caught a lot of people’s eyes. Mainly because those who have looked at it noticed that it has “two hearts”:

#InsaneCuriosity #StrangestGalaxies #HowTheUniverseWorks


The Truth Behind The Parallel Universe NASA Discovered!

The Truth Behind The Parallel Universe NASA Discovered!

From what the internet said it was, to what it’s really about, and what all this means about our lives, and more! Join us as we dive into the truth behind the “Parallel Universe” NASA “Discovered”.

Subscribe for more videos:
Business Enquiries: lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com
There is a certain “law” out there in the world today that everyone should know. It is one backed up by science, by history, by common sense, and more. Quite simply, that law is the law of “You Don’t Trust Everything You See On The Internet!” Granted, sometimes you see things on the internet that are so shocking that it CAN’T be true, and yet it is. But other times, you get lured in by something that seems shockingly true, and yet, it’s not.
Such was the case recently with the “discovery” of something that truly would’ve broken the universe as we know it. Because according to some, NASA had discovered a parallel universe. One where time didn’t flow normally. Instead, it flowed backward.
So let’s be like that parallel universe and rewind things for a bit, shall we? A little while back articles from the New York Post, Daily Star and Express stated “sources” that NASA had indeed discovered a parallel universe, and in this universe, time was flowing backwards ever since the point of the Big Bang. The internet went crazy with this potential discovery, especially as many wondered what it could mean in the large scale.
The idea of parallel universes is nothing new (as we discuss in another video of ours!), and there has been rampant speculation as to what they would be like, how they formed, and more. But it would be safe to say that in all of those theories, none of them had time running backwards, as that would be highly irregular, and how do you go backwards from the beginning of time itself?
Regardless of that answer, many people across the board started to go nuts on the internet trying to figure out the hows and whys as to how all of this happened. When the immediate answer was right in front of them. Not in regards to how it all worked, but rather, whether we could believe this to be true. Because The New York Post, the Daily Star and the Express aren’t exactly the most reliable of sources when it comes to major news breaks.
Not to mention, if you look at the articles from the papers, they’re all just quoting one another, and just as important, they’re citing a lot of information…in an incorrect fashion.
That’s right, NASA has NOT found a parallel universe where time flows backwards, not even close. Though that does raise the question…how did we get from there to here? Simple, NASA did find something, it’s just nothing on the level of a parallel universe…yet.
Before we dive into what REALLY is going on in the world of NASA, be sure to like or dislike the video, that way we can continue to improve our content for you the viewer! Also, be sure to subscribe to the channel, that way you don’t miss ANY of our weekly videos!
So where did this whole parallel universe mess really start? Believe it or not, it was in Antarctica. But not in the way you’re thinking. There’s an experiment going on down there that had some interesting findings as of late.
Scientists actually found evidence (signals) of fundamental particles that may defy our current understanding of physics. It might even just be an issue with how particles interact with ice.
Here’s a detailed breakdown of the experiment in the words of its lead research paper writer, Ibrahim Safa of UW–Madison.
“During the first three flights of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, the collaboration detected several neutrino candidates. Two of these candidate events were consistent with an ultra-high-energy up-going air shower and compatible with a tau neutrino interpretation. A third neutrino candidate event was detected in a search for Askaryan radiation in the Antarctic ice, although it is also consistent with the background expectation. The inferred emergence angle of the first two events is in tension with IceCube and ANITA limits on isotropic cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. Here, we test the hypothesis that these events are astrophysical in origin, possibly caused by a point source in the reconstructed direction.”
Notice that nowhere in there is any words like “parallel” or “universe” or “reversing time”. Which brings us to a tweet that Safa did after hearing about all the people saying that the team had found a parallel universe:
” NASA has discovered that y’all should not be getting your news from the new york post.”
Wise words indeed.

#InsaneCuriosity #ParallelUniverse #RecentSpaceDiscoveries


What If the Universe Isn't Uniform?

What If the Universe Isn’t Uniform?

In a galaxy far away, gravity didn’t quite work the way it does on Earth. And the speed at which everything moved was really weird too. Maybe, some places in our vast Universe just don’t abide by our laws of physics? And if that was true, what would it mean for us?

Transcript and sources:
Subscribe to our second channel called “How to Survive”:

Can you translate this episode into another language? Add subtitles and we will link your YouTube channel in the description:

Watch more what-if scenarios:
Planet Earth:
The Cosmos:
Your Body:

T-shirts and merch:
Suggest an episode:
Feedback and inquiries:

What If elsewhere:
What If in Spanish:
What If in Mandarin:

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

Produced with love by Underknown in Toronto: