Tag Archives: moon

What Is Our Place In The Milky Way?

What is our place in the Milky Way? And our place in the Universe? In ancient times, many people had the idea our planet Earth to be at the centre of the Universe, as stated by Aristotle and Ptolomeus in their ptolemaic – aristotelic concept of universe: according to this model, Earth is at the center of the universe and all the other celestial bodies orbit around it. Today lots of people think the same. But is this really the case? To answer this question, let’s try to to a travel in the universe, through space and time; we will start our travel from our planet to reach, in the end, the extreme boundaries of the universe.
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During the 1600s, Galileo Galilei, the famous Italian astronomer, was one of the first people, during modern age, to have some doubts about the geocentric model of universe: thanks to telescopic observations, he was able to demonstrate our Earth is not at the rotation centre of planets and the Sun, but really it is the Sun itself. Moreover, observing planet Jupiter, he discovered that the giant planet is the rotation center for its moons. So, Galileo became aware that the center of the Solar System was the Sun, not the Earth!

The Solar System is made by a star, the Sun, eight planets and different types of minor celestial bodies, like comets, asteroids and dwarf planets.
Well, the Earth isn’t at the center of the Solar System, maybe is the closest planet to our Sun? No it isn’t, because it is only the third planet from the Sun: the closest planet to our star is Mercury, followed by Venus and then Earth. The Earth moves around the Sun, our star, just like all the other celestial bodies in the Solar System do: this implies that the Sun, and not our planet, is the center of rotation of the Solar System! The Earth takes a year, 365 days, to travel its orbit, and its average distance from the Sun is 150 million kilometers, which is the measure unit of distances in the Solar System known as the astronomical unit and abbreviated AU. Why do we talk about average distance? Because the orbit traveled by the Earth around the Sun is not circular but elliptical, and this means that there will be an aphelion (i.e. the point of the Earth’s orbit farthest from the Sun, just over 1 AU away from it) and a perihelion (the point of Earth’s orbit closest to the Sun, just under 1 AU). An alternative way to define the astronomical unit passes through the light time, in particular we can say that the average distance Earth – Sun is equal to about 8 light minutes: this means that sunlight takes 8 minutes to arrive on Earth, so that the sunlight we see at a certain moment is not that of that moment but it is the sunlight which left from the Sun 8 minutes earlier! In other words: if the sun went out for example at 2.30 pm, we would only notice it at 2.38 pm! Or again: if you could travel aboard the Star Wars Millennium Falcon it would take you only 8 minutes to travel from the Sun to the Earth (when in reality it takes a few years). To give a more concrete idea of the dimensions of the Solar System: if the Sun were a sphere with a diameter of 14 cm, Pluto would be at 700 m from the Sun, like seven regular soccer fields!

The nearest celestial body to Earth is the Moon, our satellite: to reach it you should take three days off! It’s the same time taken by Apollo astronauts to cover the distance of nearly 400 thousand kilometers that separate Moon and Earth. But if you had Star Trek Enterprise, and travel at maximum curvature, you would only take less than 2 seconds to reach the Moon!

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#InsaneCuriosity #MilkyWay #Galaxies


The New Space Race! The Battle Of The Billionaires

We see NASA is firing up its rockets to go back to the moon again and multiple startups and industries have sprung up in this new race with some huge billionaire giants like Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson where all are racing to conquer the new space industry. In this video we will talk about all those big billionaires and what are their plans for the future of our space. 
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This time it’s not only the US and the Russia. Several countries and private companies have announced plans for space exploration. This year alone India and China have announced their bids to be space powers with plans of launching missions to to mars and the moon. US has plans for many deep space missions along with Europe and United Arab Emirates, which has recently sent its probe on the red planet. So why has there been such interest in the space recently!! Well it because the space industry is a new gold rush. The economics is making sense and many new industries have formed around space.  Already there are space 3d printing companies that have printed on the International space station (ISS). The manufacturing of more efficient fibre optic cables has also become possible in space. Space manufacturing could create many startling new technologies that would lead to industries that don’t even exist today.  Extraterrestrial colonisation is a fascination for these billionaires, and space tourism is an exciting field for which many have even paid in advance. NASA had announce its lunar program Artemis “to land the first woman and the next man on the moon” and many private companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin are competing to provide their services of commercial payloads for the mission. NASA also plans to land Astronauts on the never visited part of the moon, The South Pole, and give astronauts 6.5 days on the lunar surface. For this NASA turns to private companies and the richest man in the world, Jeff Bezos, jumped at this opportunity. SpaceX founder Elon Musk successfully launched the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket with the Crew Dragon spacecraft at the Kennedy Space Centre on May 30, 2020 in Cape Canaveral, Florida. Space tourism seems is also an area which SpaceX and Blue Origin want to accomplish. But there is another player who wants his part in this, Richard Branson and his V*rgin Atlantic. Recently he announced that he has 800 astronauts who have already signed up wanting to go to space. 

So let’s discuss the first Billionaire and also the world’s richest man, Jeff Bezos and his company Blue Origin. Jeff Bezos has shown his fascination about Space and possibilities of human life in space. The coming couple of years seem to be a busy year for Blue Origin, and American Aerospace manufacturer led by Amazon’s Jeff Bezos founded in the year 2000 the company has a goal of improving space tourism and make it accessible to everyone and even build space colonies for human beings in orbit complete with hotels, amusement parks, restaurants and other infrastructures. His ventures are comparative to that of Richard Branson and Elon Musk who also have put space Exploration as their foremost business interest.  Blue Origin is planning for a construction of a warehouse in Florida for building and launching rockets with dreams to reach and find many ways to explore the moon. The company has been invested in developing a vertical takeoff and landing spacecraft called New Shepard, named after the astronaut Alan Shepherd who was the first American to go to space. It is a reusable rocket and will not only make safe takeoff and landing but also will save loads of cost of building and launching new rockets and aims to take passengers into space and have a quick view of the earth and feel the weightlessness and excitement of space. It plans to do so by sending a capsule into the orbit which would hold a maximum of six people which might increase.
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Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/Esa
Credits: Flickr

#InsaneCuriosity #TheNewSpaceRace #SpaceTourism


What If You Cut the Moon in Half?

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Something weird is going on. The days are getting longer, the weather is getting worse, and a lot of surfers look sad. Chin up, guys. Maybe the waves will show up tomorrow? While it may look like we have a full Moon up there, what if the other half broke off? Are we doomed? What causes moonquakes? What would happen if half of our Moon drifted away? Has the Moon already split in half? What is a tidally locked planet? Could this cause an axial tilt of Earth?

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Io: Jupiter's Volcanic Moon!

From the discovery of the moon, to what makes it so volcanic, and more! Join us as we explore Io: Jupiter’s Volcanic Moon!
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8. The Discovery Of Io
In many ways, Io is one of the more popular moons of Jupiter. It’s been referenced many a time as we’ll note later. But how did we learn about this very special moon?
The first reported observation of Io was made by Galileo Galilei on 7 January 1610 using a 20x-power, refracting telescope at the University of Padua. However, in that observation, Galileo could not separate Io and Europa due to the low power of his telescope, so the two were recorded as a single point of light. Io and Europa were seen for the first time as separate bodies during Galileo’s observations of the Jovian system the following day, January 8th, 1610 ( this is used as the discovery date for Io by the IAU).
The discovery of Io and the other Galilean satellites of Jupiter was published in Galileo’s Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610. In his Mundus Jovialis, published in 1614, Simon Marius claimed to have discovered Io and the other moons of Jupiter in 1609, one week before Galileo’s discovery. Galileo doubted this claim and dismissed the work of Marius as plagiarism. Regardless, Marius’s first recorded observation came from 29 December 1609 in the Julian calendar, which equates to January 8th, 1610 in the Gregorian calendar, which Galileo used. Given that Galileo published his work before Marius, Galileo is credited with the discovery.
But the end of the “discovery” did not end there. Because for basically 250 years various astronomers tried to learn more about Io. But because of its place in space all they could usually see was a ball of light. It would take a while for them to start to parse out the details of the moon.
Improved telescope technology in the late 19th and 20th centuries allowed astronomers to resolve (that is, see as distinct objects) large-scale surface features on Io. In the 1890s, Edward E. Barnard was the first to observe variations in Io’s brightness between its equatorial and polar regions, correctly determining that this was due to differences in color and albedo between the two regions and not due to Io being egg-shaped, as proposed at the time by fellow astronomer William Pickering, or two separate objects, as initially proposed by Barnard. Later telescopic observations confirmed Io’s distinct reddish-brown polar regions and yellow-white equatorial band.
Telescopic observations in the mid-20th century began to hint at Io’s unusual nature. Spectroscopic observations suggested that Io’s surface was devoid of water ice (a substance found to be plentiful on the other Galilean satellites).
So as you can see, this wasn’t just a discovery of trying to find the moon, but to try and understand what it was and what it was like in regards to its very nature. Which would be further expanded upon in the future via attempts to explore the moon with probes and satellites.
7. The Exploration of Io Part 1
In the late 1960s, a concept known as the Planetary Grand Tour was developed in the United States by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). It would allow a single spacecraft to travel past the asteroid belt and onto each of the outer planets, including Jupiter, if the mission was launched in 1976 or 1977. However, there was uncertainty over whether a spacecraft could survive passage through the asteroid belt, where micrometeoroids could cause it physical damage, or the intense Jovian magnetosphere, where charged particles could harm sensitive electronics.

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Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/Esa
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Credits: JPL/ university of arizona/ DLR/goddard/scientific visualization studio/SwRi/MSSS/UCLA/USGS
wellcome images
burkhard mùche
horst frank -commonswiki
volcanopele at english wikipedia
rick guidice/Robbie Shade/ Lunar and Planetary Institute/Mailset

#InsaneCuriosity #IoMoon #TheSolarSystem


For Artemis – A New Earth Rises Above the Moon 1080p Full HD (ISAS/JAXA)

With Artemis returning us to the moon, here’s a 1-minute Earth-Rise showing Australia. Japan’s SELENE (Kaguya) lunar satellite was orbiting towards the moon’s north pole when the Earth-Rise was captured on September 30, 2008. The satellite surveyed the moon between 2007 and 2009.

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The data used to make this video is Copyright “ISAS/JAXA” and is not used commercially here.

Music: “Breathe” by Shane Ivers –

I am not affiliated, associated, authorized, endorsed by, or in any way officially connected with ISAS or JAXA.


Can SpaceX Starship & Blue Origin Really Go To The Moon?

Can SpaceX Starship & Blue Origin Really Go To The Moon?

From the goals, to the plans, to the rivals, and more, join me as we ask the question of whether SpaceX can send their starship to the moon!

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13 Mysterious Moon Facts!

When you look at space, there are a lot of things out there that we as humans want to reach. And the first thing that we truly reached and could grasp was the moon itself. On July 20th 1969, after many years of trials, tribulations, setbacks, delays, fears and more, we sent three men into space, and two of them landed on the moon (the third stayed in the craft just for the record, someone had to watch their ride!). It was a triumphant moment in human history. But it was also something that afterwards…lost its luster in terms of repeating the feat.
We did go back to the moon multiple times, but each time it got more and more costly, more and more questioned, until eventually the Apollo program (which was the program to get people to the moon) was outright canceled. Only recently did things start to look better for the program as both NASA and Elon Musk via SpaceX decided to go and inspire the human race to try and get back to the moon in a good amount of time. In fact, it could be that we get to the moon again very soon, even before we reach the long-awaited Mars. Or at least, that’s what Elon Musk thinks:
“Well, this is gonna sound pretty crazy, but I think we could land on the moon in less than two years,” Musk told Time. “Certainly with an uncrewed vehicle I believe we could land on the moon in two years. So then maybe within a year or two of that we could be sending crew. I would say four years at the outside.”
In other words, Musk is saying his conservative estimate for sending people back to the moon aboard a SpaceX vehicle is 2023, the year before NASA hopes to send a crew — including the first female astronaut to visit the moon — as part of its new Artemis program.
You might think that this is a friendly competition thing going on, but it’s a little more complicated than that. You see, Elon Musk started SpaceX with others to try and restore humanities faith in reaching out to the stars, and it’s worked. But more importantly than that, he wanted to make an independent space company that didn’t rely on government funding (like NASA) and thus be able to make spaceships, satellites, and more at a much cheaper cost. Which, again, he succeeded in. This has actually put NASA and SpaceX on great terms, and the two are working together in various ways. Including sending certain SpaceX ships up to the International Space Station, and working together on plans to help get humanity to Mars.
However, NASA has noted recently that they desire to go the moon on their own craft, which of course prompted a response from Elon:
“If it were to take longer to convince NASA and the authorities that we can do it versus just doing it, then we might just do it. It may literally be easier to just land Starship on the moon than try to convince NASA that we can.”
And that right there is one of the cruxes of Elon Musk’s belief in his team and his spaceships. If he thinks he can do something, he’ll push to do it, and he’s been more right than wrong in recent months and years with his programs. His communications satellite system Starlink has started launching and is getting closer to its first minor test in North America. The various starships that he’s making is getting more and more tests, and so on and so forth.
That being said, we all know that Elon Musk can talk more than he can produce at times. A lot of his spaceships in recent months have had issues, including one of his ships trying to launch and creating a massive fireball instead. The ship was fine and it was revealed that a leak in a system caused a fireball, but still, it delayed future plans by a significant margin.
Which is why many aren’t exactly believing that Elon Musk is going to reach the moon in the next few years because of the uncertainty of space travel and all the dangers that can go along with it.
But, that doesn’t mean that NO ONE may be able to reach the moon in the next few years…
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Jeff Bezos is the founder of Amazon, you know the major website where you likely have bought more things than you care to admit? And throughout his life, he’s had a fascination with space. So much so that it was him who found the Apollo 11 Engines that were jettisoned during the launch of the legendary mission.
But unlike many, he’s not looking to Mars (unlike NASA and SpaceX among others), he feels that humanity has a lot to get from the moon itself.

#InsaneCuriosity #ToTheMoon #MarsColonization


World's Future Events By 2100!

World’s Future Events By 2100!

World’s Future Events By 2100!
From what the future will bring, to the events that could change our world forever, join us as we explore what events will happen by 2100!

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What Will Happen By 2090!

I know it’s hard to look at the future and say exactly what’ll happen. If you think about it, we’re in 2020, but if you asked people in 1920 what today would look like? Yeah, their answers would be VASTLY different. Don’t forget that this point in time was supposed to be the “sci-fi” future that a lot of people envisioned (we’re already past Back To The Future for example). So in truth, there is no real way of knowing what’s going to happen between now and 2100. However, there are things that we can predict, try to acknowledge as likely, and see what humanity might just accomplish.
So let’s start off with the very near future. Mainly, 2021. It’s in this year that the James Webb Telescope is expected to launch. So…what is it?
“The James Webb Space Telescope is the most ambitious and complex astronomical project ever built, and bringing it to life is a long, meticulous process.
So basically, the reason that we need this telescope/observatory is because without it, we will be unable to observe a large part of the universe that we can only speculate on right now with the other devices we have. P
. And so in the VERY near future, we could have a greater understanding of our universe. Which is perfect, because also in 2021 we’re allegedly going to get the first “space hotel”.
No, really.
“We are launching the first-ever affordable luxury space hotel,” said Orion Span founder and CEO Frank Bunger, who unveiled the Aurora Station to the world.

Another thing you can bet on is our desire to go back to the moon, which allegedly is going to happen in 2023. Which would mean that if successful, it would’ve been about 50 years between the current (2023) and last (1976) manned moon mission. Don’t get me wrong, we’ve launched MANY thing to the moon between that time period, but a manned mission to land on the moon? Not so much.

And now…for the event that I’m sure you want to talk about…getting to Mars. SpaceX is leading the charge on this one, as they’re endeavoring to send humans to Mars in the year 2024. Or more accurately, the mission to Mars will START in 2024, and they’ll likely land therein 2025.
The goal of this “first phase” of the mission is simple, he wants to get the people to Mars (call that Step 1) and then see how they’re able to interact on the planet, how well the cargo supplies hold up, and of course, set up the first “home” on the planet.

Elon Musk intends to have a livable base, generators that will run off of various power sources on Mars to ensure they don’t run out of power, and more.
. So obviously SpaceX, NASA and many others are working together to try and suss out all the kinks and possibilities to give this launch and mission one of the smoothest things around.
What we’re also hoping to be smooth is an event going on in 2029, less than a decade from now we’re going to have a close encounter of the asteroid kind. Specifically a rock called 99942 Apophis that was detected all the way back in 2004 and predicted to potentially hit the Earth in 2029. This has since been toned down to saying that it’ll pass by Earth just 20,000 miles above the surface. Which is still REALLY close, but barring something happening, we don’t have to worry about us getting hit.

Halley’s Comet is known as a “short period comet”, as it circles the confines of space, and then arrives back at Earth every 75-76 years. So if you’re lucky, you could see it twice in a lifetime.
Now, in 2069, another very important NASA mission is said to happen, but you can take this one with a grain of salt because of advances in technology happening right now. You see, NASA wants to send a craft to the place known as Alpha Centauri. Alpha Centauri is a place that you may have heard about because it’s a place where it’s said that a very Earth-like planet resides. The problem is that it’s over 4 light years away and in our quickest ship it would take tens of thousands of years to reach there…not fun.
I mentioned, there is a project being made right now that could send things to Alpha Centauri a LOT fast, and it’s set to launch in the next decade or so. Thus, if it works…we could have a look at the system a lot sooner. Time will tell.
From a look to the stars, to the remains of our world, 2095 (based on current calculations) will be a devastating year for Earth because of the fact that we’ll have cut down the entire Amazon Rainforest.
As for 2100, if we reach that point, our population will be over 11 billion (overpopulation)


What Would Happen If The Moon Disappeared?

What Would Happen If The Moon Disappeared?

What would happen if the moon disappeared?
Our moon had a great status from the beginning of human civilization, it was immortalized by
various religions all around the world. In greek mythology there was a moon goddess named
Selene the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia, it was worshiped and respected the
same way as the sun god Helios which indicates that our ancestors placed the moon and the
sun on equal footing. Moon is also worshiped in Hindu mythology by those who have
fluctuations in their life, ups and downs and by those who wish to have sons.
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The moon is featured in Van Gogh’s masterpiece “The starry night” , Frank Sinatra’s delightful song “Fly me
to the moon” and many other captivating art works. Art and history have always been enchanted
by the moon but today we intend to highlight the important role of the moon in elevating our
civilization from a scientific perspective. Our aim is to answer the question “ what would happen
if the moon disappeared? “

Before answering that question here are some facts about the moon:
1- The moon is the nearest and brightest celestial object orbiting the Earth in an elliptical path. It
may not follow the same path every cycle due to the fact that its orbit orientation is not entirely
fixed in space but rotates over time resulting in precession and inclination. Its apparent size
differs from the actual size due to the relative motion to an observer on the earth, you can
understand this as follows, the nearer an object to you the bigger you will see it.
2- The moon was formed 4.51 billion years ago approximately after 60 million years of the entire
formation of the solar system. There are several models regarding the moon formation but the
prevailing model is that the Earth-Moon system was formed due to an extremely huge impact
between a Mars sized celestial body called Theia and the proto-Earth, which is the earth at its
very early stages. The impact resulted in the Earth with its shape today and some other material
in its orbit which accreted and formed the moon.
3- Like the earth, the moon is a differentiated celestial body that can be divided into crust,
mantle and core. The Core is solid with a molten iron boundary around it, the mantle is the
largest layer formed by a complex yet extremely important process called the magma fractional
crystallization. The geo-chemical mapping of the moon rocks collected by the Apollo mission
suggests that the crust is mainly composed of mafic minerals which are rich in magnesium and
4- The photodecomposition process prevents the formation of water on the lunar surface. In
other words, the photons radiated by the sun decompose the water molecules formed on the
lunar surface.

After knowing some interesting facts about the moon and how it was formed, It’s time to
consider the main question of today’s episode.
1- You may wonder what is exactly the relation between the moonlight absence and the
disturbance of the ecosystem because at the first glance they may seem completely unrelated,
however they are strongly connected. The ecosystem is by definition a biological community of
interacting organisms and their physical environment, it contains biotic and abiotic parts; the
biotic parts include all the living organisms whereas the abiotic components include the
environmental factors such as rocks, temperature and humidity. According to the encyclopedia
of national geographic, every factor in the ecosystem depends on every other factor either
directly or indirectly and the slight disturbance in one factor will end up affecting the whole
ecosystem; for example the change in temperature of an ecosystem will limit the type of plants
that grow in there and hence will affect the animals that depend on these plants as a primary
source of food and shelter leading them to adapt to that change or move to another ecosystem
or perish. Another important and related concept to highlight is the food chain; which describes
how energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem. In the food chain, energy is transferred
from one living organism through another in the form of food. There are primary producers such
as plants, primary consumers such as animals that depend on plants as their food source and
secondary consumers such as predators and decomposing organisms.

#InsaneCuriosity #ToTheMoon #MoonFactsAndHistory


Can We Colonize The Moon By 2024?

Can We Colonize The Moon By 2024?

From whether we can get to it regularly, to why it would need to be done a certain way, join me as we explore whether we can colonize the moon by 2024( or 2030)To the moon!

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Let’s be honest with ourselves for a minute, shall we? As we begin this brand new decade of life on Earth, there are certain “goals” that every nation is trying to achieve. And for a more “global” goal, the mission is to get to Mars…and then start to colonize it. Trust me when I say that there are a LOT of plans on how to get to Mars in a decent amount of time and to start colonizing it as soon as possible. To the extent that if the plans work, and if everything goes as it should, we could be living on Mars in a certain capacity by the end of the decade.
But for some scientists, they see this as…inefficient to a certain extent. Not the least of which is because Mars is hundreds of millions of miles away from Earth at its closest point (due to the orbits of Earth and Mars not being on the same timeframe), and yet there is something much, MUCH closer to Earth for us to colonize…the moon.
Now sure, Mars has been the focus in recent years because of discoveries of water on Mars, and certain other things that could make it a livable place, but what about the moon? Have we honestly ever thought about colonizing it? Yeah, much more than you might think. In fact there are plans to potentially have it done by 2024, and one time there was even a plan to have it settled by 2022.
So what exactly has stopped us from doing this wonderful thing? Simple, money. Isn’t that always the answer? NASA used to be a very well funded operation, but now, their budget is much more slashed than in previous decades. While we are still aiming to get to Mars, it’s much more of a long term project for NASA, while companies like SpaceX are doing more private and low-cost funding in order to help them get to their goals for the red planet.
Thus, by that token, one cannot have one and the other. Do we colonize Mars, or the moon? Most people have chosen Mars for various reasons, but not all, especially since some people believe they can do it AND Mars within the budget NASA:
“The US could lead a return of humans to the surface of the Moon within a period of 5-7 years from authority to proceed at an estimated total cost of about $10 billion (±30 percent),” conclude NASA’s Alexandra Hall and NextGen Space’s Charles Miller in one of the papers about colonizing the moon.
A bold claim, and one that got many people’s attention. Especially when he explained how a formerly $150 billion dollar spacecraft would now cost $10 billion total for the whole thing. The answer there is that technology has grown a lot since the 70’s:
“The big takeaway,” McKay told Popular Science, “is that new technologies, some of which have nothing to do with space – like self-driving cars and waste-recycling toilets – are going to be incredibly useful in space, and are driving down the cost of a moon base to the point where it might be easy to do.”
In short, since we already have the materials here on Earth to build spacecraft, and people at SpaceX are doing it much cheaper than NASA, there’s no reason to think we can’t go to the moon and set up colonies there all the while doing our thing here on Earth and getting ready for Mars.
Some even think that the need to go to the moon ( lunar surface) is a perfect “prequel” to going to Mars:
“My interest is not the Moon. To me the Moon is as dull as a ball of concrete,” NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay, who edited the special, open-access issue of New Space journal,( use news) told Sarah Fecht over at Popular Science. “But we’re not going to have a research base on Mars until we can learn how to do it on the Moon first. The Moon provides a blueprint to Mars.”
Everything in regards to the moon colony mission is being furthered every day, especially when it comes to things like Blue Origin offering to help get people there.
What is Blue Origin? Well, that would be Jeff Bezos’ (founder of Amazon) personal space company (not unlike what Elon Musk has with SpaceX), and what he is working on is a reusable engine that wouldn’t just send astronauts to the moon, but also send tourists into space. All of which would help make Bezos billions of dollars in contracts from various space agencies since his rockets are currently very advanced. Plus, having reusable rockets saves time from having to build individual ones for each mission. Which obviously can be very costly as well.
Has he actually proven that his rockets work? Yes, actually he has, he has two rockets that he has both in the works and is also testing. One of them is the 59-foot New Shepherd Model. This is the one that he aims to use to put people into space. In May of 2019 he launched and landed one of these powerful rockets without any issue.


Callisto: Jupiter's Cratered Moon!

Callisto: Jupiter’s Cratered Moon!

From its discovery, to its importance around Jupiter, and more! Join us as we explore Callisto, Jupiter’s Moon.
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9. Discovery and Naming Of Callisto
Callisto was discovered Jan. 7, 1610, by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei along with Jupiter’s three other largest moons: Ganymede, Europa and Io.
Artemis. Who was also the goddess of the moon for the record. The name was suggested by Simon Marius soon after Callisto’s discovery. Marius attributed the suggestion to Johannes Kepler.
However, the names of the Galilean satellites fell into disfavor for a considerable time, and were not revived in common use until the mid-20th century. In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Callisto is referred to by its Roman numeral designation, a system introduced by Galileo, as Jupiter IV or as “the fourth satellite of Jupiter”.
Now though it’s known as Callisto by most texts, including ones you’ll see in school in hear about when moons like these are discovered. The desire to keep things simple while also rooting much naming in mythology has been desired by astronomers in earlier decades.
8. Orbit and Rotation
Callisto is the outermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. It orbits at a distance of approximately 1,170,000 miles (26.3 times the radius of Jupiter itself). This is significantly larger than the orbital radius of the next-closest Galilean satellite, Ganymede. As a result of this relatively distant orbit, Callisto does not participate in the mean-motion resonance—in which the three inner Galilean satellites are locked—and probably never has.
Like most other regular planetary moons, Callisto’s rotation is locked to be synchronous with its orbit. The length of Callisto’s day, simultaneously its orbital period, is about 16.7 Earth days. Its orbit is very slightly eccentric and inclined to the Jovian equator, with the eccentricity and inclination changing quasi-periodically due to solar and planetary gravitational perturbations on a timescale of centuries. These orbital variations cause the axial tilt (the angle between rotational and orbital axes) to vary between 0.4 and 1.6°.
The dynamical isolation of Callisto means that it has never been appreciably tidally heated, which has important consequences for its internal structure and evolution. Its distance from Jupiter also means that the charged-particle flux from Jupiter’s magnetosphere at its surface is relatively low—about 300 times lower than, for example, that at Europa. Hence, unlike the other Galilean moons, charged-particle irradiation has had a relatively minor effect on Callisto’s surface. The radiation level at Callisto’s surface is equivalent to a dose of aCallisto is named after one of Zeus’s many lovers in Greek mythology. Callisto was a nymph (or, according to some sources, the daughter of Lycaon) who was associated with the goddess of the hunt, bout 0.01 rem per day, which is over ten times higher than Earth’s average background radiation.
6. Surface Of The Moon
Callisto’s rocky, icy surface is the oldest and most heavily cratered in our solar system. The surface is about 4 billion years old and it’s been pummeled, likely by comets and asteroids. Because the impact craters are still visible, scientists think the moon has little geologic activity—there are no active volcanoes or tectonic shifting to erode the craters. Callisto looks like it’s sprinkled with bright white dots that scientists think are the peaks of the craters capped with water ice.
The moons of Jupiter have been something of a fascination for many astronomers and scientists. So when the Earth had the ability to look at the moons via satellites and probes they almost literally jumped at the chance. To the extent that Callisto has been visited many times of the last several decades.
The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 Jupiter encounters in the early 1970s contributed little new information about Callisto in comparison with what was already known from Earth-based observations ironically enough.
The real breakthrough happened later with the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979. They imaged more than half of the Callistoan surface with a resolution of 1–2 km, and precisely measured its temperature, mass and shape. A second round of exploration lasted from 1994 to 2003, when the Galileo spacecraft had eight close encounters with Callisto, the last flyby during the C30 orbit in 2001 came as close as 138 km to the surface.