Tag Archives: physics

How Mobile is an Electron? Using Path Integrals to Describe Polaron Formation and Mobility



An introduction talk to my research on using path integrals to extend the Fröhlich polaron model. I made the video as a fun project to succinctly describe my PhD project. The aim is to make the theory more inclusive of material properties such as multiple phonon modes, anisotropy and anharmonicity.

Check out my GitHub here:
The open source code associated with this video can be found at the following repository:

I took inspiration from the video style used by Minute Physics:

whose videos I love to watch! Although, I did not use stop-motion, I instead used an iPad and screen recorded myself drawing everything on the Procreate app.

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DraftScience vs Video #3: Veritasium wind car thing



email: ds@donotgo.com
#VeritasiumContest
1/2 vmv
Was willfully created to Force reality to match religious daydreams. The history of its creation, defense, and eventual acceptance is a mockery of the scientific method. Truth was forsaken for agenda, evidence was exaggerated distorted and quote mined to support a plainly silly notion of reality…

“”If I’m in space and I throw a 2 L bottle of coke (2 kg) away from me at 1mph., do I received the same thrust if I shoot a dime (2 grams) away from me at 1000mph.? If so isn’t this proof against the kinetic energy formula?””

“”Is there any physical evidence defending the kinetic energy theorem? The theory says an 8 lb bowling ball will produce twice as much “energy” as a 16 pound ball thrown with the same effort. No pro bowler can make A lighter ball work. Why? “”

“”If I shoot two objects with inverse velocity to Mass ratios (for exp. 10m 5v vs 5m 10v) into gravity your formula says one object will have twice as much energy as the other at liftoff. If I let the objects fall, on an identical spring they will be recorded to impose the same pressure, the same joules of energy. How do you reconcile that fact with your theory? or Do you dispute the fact?””

“”Your theory says a 5-ton train going 10 miles an hour has twice as much energy–ability to do work as a 10 ton going 5 miles an hour. I claim you will never prove that to be true, and that if you actually collected the energy of the moving objects in a scientifically sensible manor it will be clearly demonstrated that they have the same capacity to do work.

Do you think a 5-ton 10 miles an hour train can do twice as much work has a 10 ton train going 5 miles an hour? Do you think you can create heat or deformation and transfer 100% of your momentum to another object?

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What If the Earth Was Actually Flat? (Extended)



If the Earth had an edge, I hope it would look like this. The edge of a flat Earth. I know, I know, we’ve talked about it before. But there’s something mesmerizing about it. A flat Earth solar eclipse. Diagonally growing trees. The great wall of ice, guarded by NASA, of course. The flat-Earthers sure have a great imagination. But what if they were right? How would the Earth hold up in space? Would it revolve around the Sun, or would the Sun rotate around it? And why would you never walk to the Earth’s edge?

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Kristopher Kirby

What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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The Physics of Windmill Design



This video was created in partnership with Bill Gates, inspired by his new book “How to Avoid a Climate Disaster.” Find out more here:

This video is about how physics dictates the design of modern windmills – why they are so big, have so few blades, and have such skinny blades.

REFERENCES
H. Glauert: Aerodynamic Theory, 1935 Division L (Airplane Propellers), Chapter XI: Windmills and Fans

Wind power extraction fundamentals

Betz’s Law

Tip Speed Ratio

Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines Book

Penn State Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Lesson

Wind Power Physics youtube video

Why do Wind Turbines Have Three Blades?

Wind Power Fundamentals

Wind Power Explained

Drag Coefficient

Reynolds Number and Drag

Reynolds Number

Viscosity of Air

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Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics — all in a minute!

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What If You Ate a Brick of Dry Ice?

What If You Ate a Brick of Dry Ice?

Dry ice is one of the coldest substances on Earth. This is what it does to a flower. And check out what it does to this action figure. Now, what would happen if you swallowed dry ice? What would it do to your skin? How much could you eat before it hurts you? And how would it affect your stomach?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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What If We Could See Through a Black Hole?

What If We Could See Through a Black Hole?

Get more insightful information about black holes with Pr. Clifford Johnson:

This star is about to transform into a black hole. And we’re about to travel inside it to see what’s on the other side. The only problem is that we’ll never be able to report our findings back to Earth. Because once you go inside a black hole, there’s no coming back. So maybe there’s a better way to find out what’s on the other side. Could we use a special telescope? How would light behave inside a black hole? And why could the first image of a black hole provide all the answers?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

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Einstein's Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

From what it is, to its impact on the world at large, join us as we explore Einstein’s Theory of Relativity made easy, and explain it so everyone can understand it. (Simplified)

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Watch Our “Wormhole Theory Explained – Breaking Spacetime!”

So where do we start with something as big and as complicated as the Theory of Relativity? I’m sure some of you wouldn’t even know what it is outside of its name, which is fine. But I’m sure you do know the man who came up with the idea, Albert Einstein. Einstein is revered as one of the smartest people to ever live, and he helped shape how we perceive both our world and our universe. So it might surprise you that this very brilliant man once started off as nothing more than a patent clerk. No, really, he did, and that’s part of the origin story to the Theory of Relativity.
Because one day, after doing his work at the patent office, he went on a trolley car to go home. And he would do this day after day after day. This is important because while he was on that car, he would think about the universe at large. He would ask himself questions and try to figure out the answers as best he could with the information he had. And one day, he was going away from a clock tower when he asked what would happen if the car he was on was going away from the clock tower…at the speed of light.
This may seem like an odd question to ask, but lightspeed travel is something that scientists are honestly trying to achieve right now, and these questions were truly the building blocks of this really happening. Anyway, back to the clock tower. Einstein theorized, as well as realized, that if he was moving the speed of light (which if you don’t know is 299,792,458 meters per second), the hands on the clock tower (meaning the minute hand and the hour hand) would quite literally appear to stop in place.
But, he also knew that while he himself was traveling at the speed of light and seeing everything stop more or less, everyone who was at the clock tower, and seeing things in “normal time” would not see them stop. The clock tower and its hands would keep ticking along as if nothing wrong.
Yet in this experiment, for Albert Einstein, time had literally slowed down, and it was at this moment that the “light bulb” went off in his head. Because it was through this experiment that he realized that if you go faster and faster through space, you’re actually causing time to go slower around you. But how was this possible if time was quite literally a constant force in the universe?
To try and answer this, Einstein would look to some of the other fathers of science to try and figure out the missing points in his equation. For example, he looked at the three laws of motion via Sir Isaac Newton. Newton notes that while objects do move at a certain speed, their values are never an absolute. Mainly because every speed we go at is based on a force imparted on something, or relative to something else. Such as how a car can go 65 miles per hour on a highway…but that’s only because the ground and friction ALLOW it to do so. No friction on the road? You’re not going that speed. Thus why he notes that every speed has to have “in respect to” another force or object that is allowing or perceiving that object’s speed.
However, in contrast, there is James Clark Maxwell, the father of electromagnetism, who notes that of all the things in the universe, it is light that is fixed. And as noted, light goes 299,792,458 meters per second. That will never change. That speed is another constant force in the universe. Anyone, anywhere in the world, or even anywhere in the universe will be able to determine that the speed of light is the same, it won’t change, and that’s part of the reason why the universe works like it does, because the speed of light is constant, right?
But therein lies the problem, or at least, Einstein realized that this was a problem. Because Newton said that no speed in the universe could be an absolute. But then Maxwell counters this by saving the speed of light is ALWAYS a constant. Which means that these two very universal and very accepted pieces of science are at a contradiction. Which is something you never want in the world of science, trust me.
If you’re still not getting the full picture of why this is a problem, here’s another thought experiment from Einstein to help explain it.
Imagine you are at a train station, and you are standing out on the platform when a storm comes. Then, out of the blue, two lightning bolts strike on either side of you. Because of your position in the middle of these lightning bolts, you perceive them at the exact same time, and the light reaches you at that same time.

Theory Of Relativity: Einstein’s Twin Paradox!

#InsaneCuriosity #Theory of Relativity #PhysicsHowTheUniverseWorks

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What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

Are you looking for a change of scenery? Are you tired of boring old Earth?
How would you like a new home away from home? Really far away from home. Like outside our Solar System far. What exoplanet would suit us best? Are there any pros? And more importantly, what are the cons?

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What If is a mini-documentary web series that takes you on an epic journey through hypothetical worlds and possibilities. Join us on an imaginary adventure through time, space and chance while we (hopefully) boil down complex subjects in a fun and entertaining way.

Produced with love by Underknown in Toronto:

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Earth's Magnetic Field Reversal: When Will Happen And Consequences!

Earth’s Magnetic Field Reversal: When Will Happen And Consequences!

What Really Happens When Earth’s Magnetic Field Flips?
The Earth has a magnetic field that, like a magnet, goes from the north pole to the south pole. This field is caused by complex processes inside of the Earth’s molten core. This magnetic field is much more important than you think. Not only does it help us find north with a compass, it also protects us and all our technology from dangerous cosmic radiation. Many animals depend on it for their migrations and dogs apparently align themselves along a north south angle when they poo* . Like all magnets, the Earth’s magnetic field has a north and south pole, so what would happen if they would flip?
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First, let’s lay down some definitions. The Earth rotates around its geographic north Pole, this pole would take massive amounts of energy, akin to a giant asteroid, to move and generally stays where it is. In a globe, the geographic north pole is marked by the top part of the stick that connects the globe to the mount. The bottom part is the south pole of course.

The magnetic poles are the two places where the magnetic field is vertical to the Earth’s surface. Near the geometric north pole the field will point vertically down, and near the geometric south pole the field will point vertically up. This means that your compass needle would not point forward on the north pole, but downwards toward the ground. On the south pole it would point straight up into the sky. Due to historical shenanigans the magnetic south pole is actually at the geographical north pole and vice versa. This is because we once decided that the north-part of a magnet on a compass, points to the geographic north pole. Since opposite sides attract, that means that the magnetic south pole is at the geographical south pole.

Unlike their geometric counterparts, the magnetic poles are wandering points. This has to do with the fact that our Earth’s core is not a solid bar magnet, but rather a very dense magnetic liquid. Changes in this liquid affect the shape, strength and orientation of the magnetic field, which can have some major effects for us.

Direct measurements of the magnetic field have been ongoing for over 4 centuries now, and in this time we have mapped the path of the magnetic north pole very accurately. It wanders around a lot, but it has always stayed close to the geographic north pole. A flip would require the magnetic pole it to move down past the equator, towards the other pole, so that a compass would now point south instead of north.

However, if we go back much further in time then we can see that the magnetic field has flipped 183 times in the last 83 million years. That means that we should have one flip roughly each 450000 years. However, these same measurements indicate that the last flip happened around 780000 years ago. That is almost twice as long as the average, which implies that we are long overdue for the next flip. Perhaps it is already happening!

How do scientists know this, you might ask. For the last 400 years we could measure it the location of the magnetic poles directly. The rough process is to compare compasses on different locations and triangulate the location of the poles. But before that we did not have the technology nor the knowledge to measure these things. The way that we managed to find out the location of the magnetic poles further back is by observing particles that were somehow ‘frozen’ into place during a certain time and point to the position that the poles had when they were still mobile. If we find a 1000 year old magnetic particle that has not moved since then, we can tell where the poles are based on its orientation. The scientists basically look for very old compasses.

The most popular source for these particles are cooled volcanic flows, which have very accurate measurements but of course do not happen on a continuous basis. Alternatively scientists look for these frozen particles in sedimentary deposits on ocean floors. These stack in a continuous process, but the problem there is that it is very hard to date the layers of sediment accurately. A new and very promising method of determining the past magnetic field is based on the observation of stalagmites. These are rock structures that are formed over the course of thousands of years by a constant dripping in a cave. Magnetic particles that float around in the cave get caught by the drop and become part of the structure.

This method is very promising because stalagmites form in a very controlled manner and are easy to date, it is a destructive process however and we have a limited amount of them.

#InsaneCuriosity #Earth’sMagneticField #WhatWillHappen

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What is the Great Attractor?

What is the Great Attractor?

Is there anything in the universe that’s just so eccentric, so breathtaking, and so beyond our understanding, that it gets a badass name? That’s what we’ll find out together in today’s episode! What is the Great Attractor?
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Okay, let’s do a bit of thought experiment to kick off the show.

I bet everybody here has been to the mall, right? Have you ever experienced a time when you are walking, and suddenly, you saw a bunch of people moving towards something?

Now, you don’t know what it is. You don’t know if it’s some food stall that’s really hitting the sales, or a new product being sold. You just know that it’s pulling people towards it. And to top it all off, you, with your ever curious mind, gets drawn to it as well! So, before you know it, you start walking.

It’s crazy, right? You don’t know why people are gathering, and yet you are attracted to that place where you’re absolutely clueless about what’s there to see, or even if what’s there could harm you. You just know that you’re curious and you want to find out. Something that you don’t understand is too charismatic for you to resist.

That, my dear friends, is the characteristic of our topic for today. A weird thing in space that is so bizarre, so unimaginably weird, and so difficult to grasp, that all we can do is to give it an appropriate name, The Great Attractor.

I hope we can say that The Great Attractor is a gigantic floating Harry Styles or Captain Ri from CLOY lightyears away in space from us, but that’s the problem. We don’t exactly know what it is. But we don’t actually know, so why not? It may actually be Henry Cavill in space.

Is he still popular now? I’m not keeping up with Hollywood stuff. Moving on.

Okay, here’s what we know about it so far. We don’t know what it is, but we know that it’s there. We’re sure it’s there, and we can see signs that it’s there.

It’s like having a gigantic stuffed toy in a very, very dark room. We can touch the fur, and we can feel how soft it is, maybe even smell it a bit, but that’s all the information we have. We’re not sure if it’s really a stuffed toy. It could be something else entirely.

So what are our observations leading us to think that it’s there? What are our touches to the fur and our sniffs to it?

We know that Hubble’s observations in 1929 lead us to believe that the universe is actually expanding, after he realized that a lot of galaxies are moving away from us. And not just moving away, it’s moving at an extremely fast pace faster than the speed of light.

This phenomenon is now something that we know as the Hubble flow: the movement of the galaxies due to the expansion of the universe.

To make that more visually appealing, say that you have a balloon that hasn’t been blown up yet. To add a little more playfulness, let’s say you decided to draw some random dots on it.

Now, you can measure the distance between the dots you made in the balloon, right? Okay, say at this point, you find a pump and you start blowing air into the balloon. Naturally, the balloon expands. But what else is happening here? The dots you drew earlier are now moving apart from one another. If earlier, one dot is a centimeter from another, now it’s maybe 5 centimeters.

The dot didn’t move, but it’s now farther away from the other because where it’s drawn at expanded.

The universe does this as well. It expands in a way similar to what we described in the balloon analogy. The galaxies are moving apart from one another at some velocity, so we expect them to be farther and farther from one another at a constant rate, right?

Oddly, this is not what scientists observe to be actually happening. Instead, they see a lot of galaxies seemingly gravitate towards a region in space. Even our very own Milky Way galaxy! The Great Attractor!

What scientists are sure of is that whatever it is, it’s definitely one powerful gravitational anomaly.

So how exactly did scientists arrive at this conclusion? That we are heading something so mysterious and puzzling?

Well, firstly, there’s this thing called expectation. The universe is expanding at an astoundingly fast rate of 2.2 million kilometers per hour!

So keeping this in mind, then, if we try to measure the speed at which a nearby galaxy is moving away from us, say, Andromeda, then we ought to get that speed right? Apparently not. This is one of the first odd measurements scientists found.

#InsaneCuriosity #TheGreatAttractor #HowTheUniverseWorks

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