Tag Archives: planet

Discovered Two Super Earth Exoplanets Orbiting A Star! (Gliese 887b And Gliese 887c)

Discovered Two Super Earth Exoplanets Orbiting A Star! (Gliese 887b And Gliese 887c)

From what this new exoplanet is, to what it could mean for our understanding of the universe as a whole, and more! Join us as we reveal to you the discovered two super-Earth exoplanets orbiting a star! (Gliese 887b And Gliese 887c)
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Humanity has a goal to explore the stars, a goal that may find itself getting a boost in feasibility by the end of the decade. But we also know that to look outside our solar system is important because we can learn even more from the planets and stars that range across the solar system and see how it reflects what is near us. To that end, one of our greatest goals is to find and research as many exoplanets (a planet which orbits a star outside the solar system) as we can and see what they are like and what we can learn from them. Which is good, because we just found a major discovery which might just change things forever.
Because looking at the brightest red dwarf star in the sky may have presented the best chance astronomers have yet to analyze the atmospheres of alien worlds — and perhaps detect whether those worlds have life. This is according to a new study that was recently released.
Scientists focused on the red dwarf star GJ 887, also known as Gliese 887. (Red dwarfs are the most common kind of star in the galaxy, and weigh between 7.5% and 50% the mass of the sun.) At a distance of about 10.7 light-years from Earth, Gliese 887 is the twelfth-closest star. Furthermore, at visible wavelengths, Gliese 887 is the brightest red dwarf in the sky, and with nearly half the sun’s mass, Gliese 887 is the heaviest red dwarf star within about 20 light-years of Earth. That may sound like a lot of needless stats but when it comes to stars you need to know as much about them to fully understand their power, potential, and lifespan.
Previous work found that many red dwarfs host planetary systems, ones usually made up of multiple small worlds. Still, “we’ve been looking for exoplanets orbiting Gliese 887 for nearly 20 years, and while we saw hints of a planetary signal, it wasn’t strong enough to convince ourselves that it was a planet,” study lead author Sandra Jeffers, an astrophysicist at the University of Göttingen in Germany, told Space.com.
But that has now changed in a major way.
Pressing forward, the researchers examined Gliese 887 for 80 nights in 2018. They relied on the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) instrument at La Silla Observatory in Chile, combining this data with archival measurements of the star spanning nearly two decades.
Astronomers use two strategies to discover most exoplanets, or worlds beyond our solar system. One method relies on how distant worlds regularly block out a fraction of light from their stars as they pass in front of their stars from the observer’s perspective. However, this method will only spot planets that pass through the line of sight between Earth and their stars, meaning it will only detect a small fraction of exoplanets.
Instead, the scientists in this latest work looked for any wobbles from Gliese 887 due to gravitational tugs from orbiting planets. This was where their breakthrough came from. They found the red dwarf has at least two “super-Earth” exoplanets, dubbed Gliese 887 b and Gliese 887 c. The former is about 4.2 times Earth’s mass and orbits just 6.8% of an astronomical unit (AU) from its star (one astronomical unit is the average distance between Earth and the sun), whereas the latter is about 7.6 times Earth’s mass and orbits 12% of an AU from the red dwarf.
To be honest, finding even one exoplanet there after two decades of finding nothing would’ve been momentous in its own right, but finding two? That is something truly special. And yet, that wasn’t all.
The researchers also found evidence for a possible third planet farther out from Gliese 887. Although the red dwarf’s two confirmed planets are likely too hot for life as we know it on Earth, this potential third planet might lie within the star’s habitable zone, where surface temperatures are suitable to host liquid water. Which by our definitions is important to have life, which is one of the many reasons we search for exoplanets so we can see if there’s another planet of life out there.

#InsaneCuriosity #Exoplanets #Gliese887

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Protecting Mars from Earth Bacteria — Behind the Spacecraft — Perseverance

Protecting Mars from Earth Bacteria — Behind the Spacecraft — Perseverance

When NASA’s Perseverance rover travels to Mars to search for signs of life, it’s important that the spacecraft doesn’t bring along any Earth bacteria. That’s why NASA-JPL scientist Moogega Stricker is ensuring that the Mars rover is free and clear of microbial stowaways. So if we ever do find life on Mars, we’ll be sure that it didn’t originate on Earth.

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What Would Happen If The Moon Disappeared?

What Would Happen If The Moon Disappeared?

What would happen if the moon disappeared?
Our moon had a great status from the beginning of human civilization, it was immortalized by
various religions all around the world. In greek mythology there was a moon goddess named
Selene the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia, it was worshiped and respected the
same way as the sun god Helios which indicates that our ancestors placed the moon and the
sun on equal footing. Moon is also worshiped in Hindu mythology by those who have
fluctuations in their life, ups and downs and by those who wish to have sons.
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The moon is featured in Van Gogh’s masterpiece “The starry night” , Frank Sinatra’s delightful song “Fly me
to the moon” and many other captivating art works. Art and history have always been enchanted
by the moon but today we intend to highlight the important role of the moon in elevating our
civilization from a scientific perspective. Our aim is to answer the question “ what would happen
if the moon disappeared? “

Before answering that question here are some facts about the moon:
1- The moon is the nearest and brightest celestial object orbiting the Earth in an elliptical path. It
may not follow the same path every cycle due to the fact that its orbit orientation is not entirely
fixed in space but rotates over time resulting in precession and inclination. Its apparent size
differs from the actual size due to the relative motion to an observer on the earth, you can
understand this as follows, the nearer an object to you the bigger you will see it.
2- The moon was formed 4.51 billion years ago approximately after 60 million years of the entire
formation of the solar system. There are several models regarding the moon formation but the
prevailing model is that the Earth-Moon system was formed due to an extremely huge impact
between a Mars sized celestial body called Theia and the proto-Earth, which is the earth at its
very early stages. The impact resulted in the Earth with its shape today and some other material
in its orbit which accreted and formed the moon.
3- Like the earth, the moon is a differentiated celestial body that can be divided into crust,
mantle and core. The Core is solid with a molten iron boundary around it, the mantle is the
largest layer formed by a complex yet extremely important process called the magma fractional
crystallization. The geo-chemical mapping of the moon rocks collected by the Apollo mission
suggests that the crust is mainly composed of mafic minerals which are rich in magnesium and
iron.
4- The photodecomposition process prevents the formation of water on the lunar surface. In
other words, the photons radiated by the sun decompose the water molecules formed on the
lunar surface.

After knowing some interesting facts about the moon and how it was formed, It’s time to
consider the main question of today’s episode.
1- You may wonder what is exactly the relation between the moonlight absence and the
disturbance of the ecosystem because at the first glance they may seem completely unrelated,
however they are strongly connected. The ecosystem is by definition a biological community of
interacting organisms and their physical environment, it contains biotic and abiotic parts; the
biotic parts include all the living organisms whereas the abiotic components include the
environmental factors such as rocks, temperature and humidity. According to the encyclopedia
of national geographic, every factor in the ecosystem depends on every other factor either
directly or indirectly and the slight disturbance in one factor will end up affecting the whole
ecosystem; for example the change in temperature of an ecosystem will limit the type of plants
that grow in there and hence will affect the animals that depend on these plants as a primary
source of food and shelter leading them to adapt to that change or move to another ecosystem
or perish. Another important and related concept to highlight is the food chain; which describes
how energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem. In the food chain, energy is transferred
from one living organism through another in the form of food. There are primary producers such
as plants, primary consumers such as animals that depend on plants as their food source and
secondary consumers such as predators and decomposing organisms.

#InsaneCuriosity #ToTheMoon #MoonFactsAndHistory

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Can SpaceX Get Starship To Mars By 2024?

Can SpaceX Get Starship To Mars By 2024?

From its likelihood, to whether SpaceX is the right person for the job, and more, join me as we explore whether SpaceX can get his starship to Mars by 2024!

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The mission to Mars is without a doubt the “mission of the decade”. This is what many groups, including NASA and other international agencies are attempting to create. One of those groups though is a privately funded one called SpaceX. And it’s a team that is truly trying to go and get to Mars within the next few years. But to understand if that’s even possible, you really need to know more about SpaceX itself.
“SpaceX designs, manufactures and launches advanced rockets and spacecraft. The company was founded in 2002 to revolutionize space technology, with the ultimate goal of enabling people to live on other planets.”
While that may sound very basic, it’s actually quite a complex thing. You see, for all the advances that humanity has made in regards to going into space, the fact of the matter is that it costs a LOT to do that. So much so that the United States main space agency, NASA, was hit with major budget cuts because the attempts they were making to revolutionize space travel just wasn’t working.
Enter Elon Musk, one of the richest men in the world, and a man who truly believes in trying to make space travel not just the future, but the present. He founded SpaceX in 2002 to try and make space travel better, cheaper, more accessible, and beyond, and as the Space X website loves to boast, since 2002, they’ve had quite a few successes:
“SpaceX has gained worldwide attention for a series of historic milestones. It is the only private company capable of returning a spacecraft from low Earth orbit, which it first accomplished in 2010. The company made history again in 2012 when its Dragon spacecraft became the first commercial spacecraft to deliver cargo to and from the International Space Station.
SpaceX successfully achieved the historic first reflight of an orbital class rocket in 2017, and the company now regularly launches flight-proven rockets. In 2018, SpaceX began launching Falcon Heavy, the world’s most powerful operational rocket by a factor of two.”
So as you can see, this is more than just a company, it’s a place with a mission, and that mission is to get humanity into space, onto Mars, and more. And it’s been working REALLY hard to try and get a manned flight into space, and it’s getting closer than you might expect!
Why is that? Because Elon Musk over the last several months and years has been building various spaceships like we noted before, and in recent months, he’s been testing the ones that he believes will send us to the planet Mars, including the line of ships he simply calls the Starship.
The Starship architecture consists of a big spaceship called Starship, which Musk has said will be capable of carrying up to 100 people, and a giant rocket named Super Heavy. Both of these vehicles will be reusable; indeed, rapid and frequent reuse is key to Musk’s overall vision, which involves cutting the cost of spaceflight enough to make Mars colonization and other bold exploration feats economically feasible.
You see, that’s the big problem with going to Mars and trying to set up a home there. It’s easy in concept, we just have to get there, set up a home, make sure it can withstand certain things and self-sustain eventually. But with how things actually work? We’re talking hundreds, thousands, even tens of thousands of hours trying to figure out all the potential problems that could happen on Mars before we even set foot on it! And of course, since things NEVER go the way we think they will, it’s going to inevitably turn into a thing where we’re trying to make things work on the fly, or have to counter some big issues that no one saw coming.
But if you think that this is stopping Elon Musk from dreaming big and trying to get us to Mars and beyond? You don’t know Elon Musk.
Before we dive more into the big dreams of Elon Musk, be sure to like or Dislike the video , that way we have a feedback to improve our work, and subscribe to the channel! That way you don’t miss ANY of our weekly videos!
Musk wrote that the eventual goal is to launch each Starship vehicle three times per day on average. Each Starship will be able to carry about 100 tons of payload to orbit, so, at that flight rate, every vehicle would loft about 100,000 tons annually, he explained.
Now, Musk may sound like he’s just spouting out a number here (and if we’re being honest…he kind of is) but in truth, he is trying to abide by the laws of space and reality. What do we mean by that? Simple, when it comes to the facts of space travel, having the right windows to travel in are essential. Not the least of which is trying to minimize travel time by making sure you are in the correct windows.
Confused? I’ll explain.

#InsaneCuriosity #SpaceX #Mars #ElonMusk

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Eris Facts And History: The Most Massive Dwarf Planet!

Eris Facts And History: The Most Massive Dwarf Planet!

From its distance from the sun, to how it helped change the definition of a planet, and more! Join me as I show you Eris: Facts and History!
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8. What Is Eris?
Depending on your familiarity with our solar system, you may or may not know about Eris, and for good reason based on its location and how it relates to other planets and celestial objects in the system.
In short, Eris is one of the largest known dwarf planets in our solar system. For those who don’t know, a Dwarf Planet is one that has the size and shape of a planet but fails to meet certain technical qualifications to be considered a full planet. Eris is about the same size as Pluto, but is three times farther from the Sun. Making it something on the very edges of our solar system. In fact, outside of some comets that have been discovered and a “unique object” from 2018, the two are the most distant known objects in our solar system.
Eris first appeared to be larger than Pluto. This triggered a debate in the scientific community that led to the International Astronomical Union’s decision in 2006 to clarify the definition of a planet. Pluto, Eris and other similar objects are now classified as dwarf planets.
Originally designated 2003 UB313 (and nicknamed for the television warrior Xena by its discovery team), Eris is named for the ancient Greek goddess of discord and strife. The name fits since it remains at the center of a scientific debate about the definition of a planet.
7. The Discovery Of Eris
Given all we just told you, the discovery of this dwarf planet is really significant.
Eris was discovered by the team of Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz on January 5, 2005, from images taken in October of 2003. The discovery was announced in July 2005, the same day as Makemake and two days after Haumea (two other dwarf planets), due in part to events that would later lead to controversy about Haumea. The search team had been systematically scanning for large outer Solar System bodies for several years, and had been involved in the discovery of several other large TNOs, including 50000 Quaoar, 90482 Orcus, and 90377 Sedna.
The reason that Eris wasn’t discovered right away via the images in 2003 was very simple, Eris was moving so slowly that scientists weren’t able to detect it. The team at the Palomar Observatory had automatic image-searching software that excluded all objects moving at less than 1.5 arcseconds per hour to reduce the number of false positives returned.
When Sedna was discovered in 2003, it was moving at 1.75 arcsec/h, and in light of that the team reanalyzed their old data with a lower limit on the angular motion, sorting through the previously excluded images by eye. In January 2005, the re-analysis revealed Eris’s slow motion against the background stars. Thus leading to its true discovery.
After that, the team dedicated itself to learning more about the soon-to-be-named dwarf planet, mainly learning what kind of orbit it had, and eventually learning the discovery that it had a moon within its orbit.
6. The Xena Name
I’m sure some of you out there were a bit curious as to why a scientific team would nickname a planet “Xena” after the legendary TV show featuring Lucy Lawless. Granted, that’s not the name the Dwarf Planet has now, but the story behind this nickname is honestly rather unique to our solar system.
Due to uncertainty over whether the object would be classified as a planet or a minor planet, because different nomenclature procedures apply to these different classes of objects (which would lead to the demoting of Pluto not long after Eris’ discovery and classification), the decision on what to name the object had to wait until after the August 24, 2006 IAU ruling. As a result, for a time the object became known to the wider public as Xena.
But why that one? “Xena” was an informal name used internally by the discovery team. It was inspired by the title character of the television series Xena: Warrior Princess. The discovery team had reportedly saved the nickname “Xena” for the first body they discovered that was larger than Pluto. According to Mike Brown, who was part of the team that discovered the dwarf planet:
“We chose it since it started with an X (planet “X”), it sounds mythological (OK, so it’s TV mythology, but Pluto is named after a cartoon, right?), and (this part is actually true) we’ve been working to get more female deities out there (e.g. Sedna).

#InsaneCuriosity #Eris #TheSolarSystem

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Callisto: Jupiter's Cratered Moon!

Callisto: Jupiter’s Cratered Moon!

From its discovery, to its importance around Jupiter, and more! Join us as we explore Callisto, Jupiter’s Moon.
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9. Discovery and Naming Of Callisto
Callisto was discovered Jan. 7, 1610, by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei along with Jupiter’s three other largest moons: Ganymede, Europa and Io.
Artemis. Who was also the goddess of the moon for the record. The name was suggested by Simon Marius soon after Callisto’s discovery. Marius attributed the suggestion to Johannes Kepler.
However, the names of the Galilean satellites fell into disfavor for a considerable time, and were not revived in common use until the mid-20th century. In much of the earlier astronomical literature, Callisto is referred to by its Roman numeral designation, a system introduced by Galileo, as Jupiter IV or as “the fourth satellite of Jupiter”.
Now though it’s known as Callisto by most texts, including ones you’ll see in school in hear about when moons like these are discovered. The desire to keep things simple while also rooting much naming in mythology has been desired by astronomers in earlier decades.
8. Orbit and Rotation
Callisto is the outermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. It orbits at a distance of approximately 1,170,000 miles (26.3 times the radius of Jupiter itself). This is significantly larger than the orbital radius of the next-closest Galilean satellite, Ganymede. As a result of this relatively distant orbit, Callisto does not participate in the mean-motion resonance—in which the three inner Galilean satellites are locked—and probably never has.
Like most other regular planetary moons, Callisto’s rotation is locked to be synchronous with its orbit. The length of Callisto’s day, simultaneously its orbital period, is about 16.7 Earth days. Its orbit is very slightly eccentric and inclined to the Jovian equator, with the eccentricity and inclination changing quasi-periodically due to solar and planetary gravitational perturbations on a timescale of centuries. These orbital variations cause the axial tilt (the angle between rotational and orbital axes) to vary between 0.4 and 1.6°.
The dynamical isolation of Callisto means that it has never been appreciably tidally heated, which has important consequences for its internal structure and evolution. Its distance from Jupiter also means that the charged-particle flux from Jupiter’s magnetosphere at its surface is relatively low—about 300 times lower than, for example, that at Europa. Hence, unlike the other Galilean moons, charged-particle irradiation has had a relatively minor effect on Callisto’s surface. The radiation level at Callisto’s surface is equivalent to a dose of aCallisto is named after one of Zeus’s many lovers in Greek mythology. Callisto was a nymph (or, according to some sources, the daughter of Lycaon) who was associated with the goddess of the hunt, bout 0.01 rem per day, which is over ten times higher than Earth’s average background radiation.
6. Surface Of The Moon
Callisto’s rocky, icy surface is the oldest and most heavily cratered in our solar system. The surface is about 4 billion years old and it’s been pummeled, likely by comets and asteroids. Because the impact craters are still visible, scientists think the moon has little geologic activity—there are no active volcanoes or tectonic shifting to erode the craters. Callisto looks like it’s sprinkled with bright white dots that scientists think are the peaks of the craters capped with water ice.
The moons of Jupiter have been something of a fascination for many astronomers and scientists. So when the Earth had the ability to look at the moons via satellites and probes they almost literally jumped at the chance. To the extent that Callisto has been visited many times of the last several decades.
The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 Jupiter encounters in the early 1970s contributed little new information about Callisto in comparison with what was already known from Earth-based observations ironically enough.
The real breakthrough happened later with the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 flybys in 1979. They imaged more than half of the Callistoan surface with a resolution of 1–2 km, and precisely measured its temperature, mass and shape. A second round of exploration lasted from 1994 to 2003, when the Galileo spacecraft had eight close encounters with Callisto, the last flyby during the C30 orbit in 2001 came as close as 138 km to the surface.

#InsaneCuriosity

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The Sun Facts And History!

The Sun Facts And History!

From the kind of star it is, to its impact on our world, and more! Join me as we explore the Sun: Facts and History.
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8. Our Star
Without a doubt, if you were to list the “most important things in the solar system we live in”, the Earth may be No.1, but the sun is No.2. And for all the reasons that you might expect and know.
Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. Electric currents in the Sun generate a magnetic field that is carried out through the solar system by the solar wind—a stream of electrically charged gas blowing outward from the Sun in all directions.
The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurora.
In short, and in long, the sun is vital to just about everything we do on this planet, and we rely on the sun to do MANY things, even though we’re honestly not controlling anything that it does. Which is a bit of an odd thing for humanity as humans like to control EVERYTHING that has to do with us.
The sun is something we see almost every day (obviously unless cloud cover is blocking it or an eclipse is happening) and even when we don’t see it, we feel its presence. It’s more than just a ball of light in the sky, it’s an energy source, a lifeline in many respects, and as noted above, it helps shape our planet in various ways that would detrimental if it WASN’T doing it.
So if someone was to honestly ask you just how important the sun is, you should tell them all the ways we need the sun, our star, to shine on.
7. Distance From Earth and Its Size
With a radius of 432,168.6 miles (695,508 kilometers), our Sun is not an especially large star—many are several times bigger—but it is still far more massive than our home planet: 332,946 Earths match the mass of the Sun. The Sun’s volume would need 1.3 million Earths to fill it.
Which at first might seem like a bad thing. After all, would we WANT to have a giant ball of fire and radiation just lurking out there that can swallow us whole if it felt like it? Honestly, yes, yes we would, and for a very simple reason, its distance from the Earth.
The Sun is 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from Earth. Which is a very LONG ways away, and in fact it’s such a distance that they came up with a term for it via “Astronomical Unit”. So when you hear that a planet or star is say 103 AUs away, that means it’s 103 times the distance between the Earth and the sun.
Going back to the distance itself, you might think that this is a “very long way away” from the entity that gives us light and essentially, life. But actually, it’s better that we’re NOT closer to the sun for a whole host of reasons.
Sunlight and its energy dissipates the farther you get away from it. Which is why there is such thing as a “Habitable Zone” in regards to stars where life can exist as well as water and other key things needed for life.
The closer you are to a star, the more impact you’re going to get from its heat and light. The farther you are from a star, the less likely you’re going to get heat and light in the amounts you need. Lest you think we’re exaggerating this, we have the perfect examples for this. It’s called Mercury, Venus and Mars.
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and it’s scorching hot as a result. It’s average temperature is 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Plus, because it’s so close to the sun it’s tidally locked, meaning that it has one “side” always facing the sun, and the other side is always away from it.
In regards to Venus, it’s our “twin” but also a case of the suns energy turning it into something else entirely. A buildup of heat and excess carbon dioxide turned it into a “Runaway Greenhouse Planet” which makes it so hot that it can melt lead. And it’s also the hottest planet in the solar system because of the greenhouse effect which was caused by the suns’ radiation.
Heading to Mars, it’s so far away from the Sun that it can’t absorb the sunlight and energy like we do on Earth, so its average temperature is -81 degrees Fahrenheit. Not to mention it doesn’t have a typical atmosphere in any sense so various solar and cosmic rays bombard the planet. And it’s so far away from the sun that even if Earth settled on the planet, using solar panels to get energy for colonies wouldn’t be as viable as you think because the distance is so great.
So as you can see, it’s GOOD that we are 93 million miles away from the sun, it’s the literal perfect spot to be in to get the positive effects of the sun without many of the negatives.

#InsaneCuriosity #TheSun #TheSolarSystem

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Kuiper Belt: Facts And History!

Kuiper Belt: Facts And History!

From what the belt is, to how it’s helped change the classification of the solar system, and more! Join me as I reveal to you the facts and history of the Kuiper Belt!
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9. What Is The Kuiper Belt?
Despite it being a major part of our solar system, there are many who honestly don’t understand the grand scale and scope of the Kuiper Belt. So allow us to give you some perspective on the matter.
The Kuiper Belt is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun. It is similar to the asteroid belt, but is far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive.
Like the asteroid belt, it consists mainly of small bodies or remnants from when the Solar System formed. While many asteroids are composed primarily of rock and metal, most Kuiper belt objects are composed largely of frozen volatiles (termed “ices”), such as methane, ammonia and water.
The Kuiper belt is home to three officially recognized dwarf planets: Pluto, Haumea and Makemake. Some of the Solar System’s moons, such as Neptune’s Triton and Saturn’s Phoebe, may have originated in the region.
In many respects, the Kuiper Belt is the “end” of our solar system in terms of things like the physical objects that are there and reachable. The “edge” of the solar system is a slightly different matter as that would either be the Heliosphere (if you go by magnetic fields) or the Oort Cloud, which is where the suns’ gravity reaches the end of its influence.
But either way, the Kuiper Belt is a major part of our solar system in the literal and figurative sense. Which is rather interesting when you think about it because for a very long time we didn’t understand what was truly in that realm of space as a whole.
8. The Discovery Of The Kuiper Belt
To truly understand the Kuiper Belt, we have to dive into something you’re very familiar with, Pluto.
After the discovery of Pluto in 1930, many speculated that it might not be alone. The region now called the Kuiper belt was hypothesized in various forms for decades. It was only in 1992 that the first direct evidence for its existence was found. The number and variety of prior speculations on the nature of the Kuiper belt have led to continued uncertainty as to who deserves credit for first proposing it.
But let’s go back to the beginning and just break it down from there, shall we?
The first astronomer to suggest the existence of a trans-Neptunian population was Frederick C. Leonard. Soon after Pluto’s discovery by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930, Leonard pondered whether it was “not likely that in Pluto there has come to light the first of a series of ultra-Neptunian bodies, the remaining members of which still await discovery but which are destined eventually to be detected”.
That same year, astronomer Armin O. Leuschner suggested that Pluto “may be one of many long-period planetary objects yet to be discovered.”
This is fascinating for all sorts of reasons, not the least of which is that the discovery of Pluto should have been a finite discovery, or one that led to more study of the planet and what it could mean as a whole. Yet many scientists looked upon it and wondered if it was telling us everything we needed to know about the region.
In 1943, in the Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Kenneth Edgeworth hypothesized that, in the region beyond Neptune, the material within the primordial solar nebula was too widely spaced to condense into planets, and so rather condensed into a myriad of smaller bodies.
From this he concluded that “the outer region of the solar system, beyond the orbits of the planets, is occupied by a very large number of comparatively small bodies” and that, from time to time, one of their number “wanders from its own sphere and appears as an occasional visitor to the inner solar system”, becoming a comet.
That’s not a bad way to describe what the Kuiper Belt really is, and he was right that by modern classifications, the various items in the belt weren’t able to go and become fully-fledged planets. But more on that in a bit.
Before we continue to break down everything that’s going on with the Kuiper Belt, be sure to like or dislike the video, that way we can continue to improve our content for you, the viewer! Also be sure to subscribe so that you don’t miss ANY of our weekly videos!
7. Continued Theories
The more that astronomers wondered about the Kuiper Belt, the more that speculations rose and fell about what it is, what it could be, what it could’ve been, and more.

#InsaneCuriosity #KuiperBelt #TheSolarSystem

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15 New Stunning Images Of Mars From Curiosity Rover (2020)

15 New Stunning Images Of Mars From Curiosity Rover (2020)

15 New Stunning Images Of Mars From Curiosity Rover (2020)

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From the various peaks of mountains, to the valleys that help reveal so much about red planet, join me as we explore brand new images from Mars via the Curiosity Rover.
I want you to imagine that you are on Mars right now. That is after all the goal of many in the world right now. Between NASA, Space X, and various other international agencies, there are a lot of people who are working hard to get us to the red planet known as Mars, and in the process, create history. Because when we do land on Mars, it’ll be the first time a human has stepped foot on another planet.

15. The Curiosity Rover
You might not realize just how much we owe to the Curiosity Rover, so allow me to explain it to you and show you just how much work this singular machine had done. The Curiosity Rover was launched from Earth on November 26th, 2011.

14. Mount Sharp 1:17
In terms of the location of where the Curiosity Rover was posted, that would be the Gale Crater. This was an impact site that at one time was believed to have been a key place for various things like water and sediment. We know that there is water on Mars, and Curiosity has even found various forms of clay via its explorations.
13. 3D Map Of Mars
While not solely a thing from the Curiosity Rover, anytime you can make a top-down 3D map of an area, it can be very helpful in various tasks that you are trying to achieve. And sure enough, with the help of the Curiosity Rover and the satellites above and beyond Mars over the years, NASA was able to make a 3D map of the area the rover is in, and thus, create a way for them to look over the terrain that would help them go and find a path through the crater and up to the peaks of Mount Sharp.

12. Yellowknife Bay
Yellowknife By was one of the areas that the Curiosity Rover had to go through to get to Mount Sharp, and as you can see from these pictures, various styles and compositions of rock are here in this area. By looking at these pictures, a lot of information was able to be determined. Including the fact that at one time, this area was indeed filled with water. Hence the name “Yellowknife Bay”.

11. Parhump Hills
Continuing on its journey to Mount Sharp, the Curiosity Rover found itself looking at the base of the mountain via the Parhump Hills. And with this came a look at places like the Kimberly Foundation. The more pictures that were taken, the more proof was stacked about how the crater was at one time a major place of water.

10. Garden City
Heading now to a rather odd spot on the rovers journey to Mount Sharp was the place known as Garden City. When you take a look at these photos, it’s almost as if the place is full of bones and litter. But in fact, it’s a place that is full of various mineral deposits that winds and weaves throughout the area.

9. Martian Sunset
If you’re hoping to see more aesthetic things that rocks and dirt via the rovers time on Mars, then you’re in luck. Because during its time on the red planet, it had time to get some absolutely beautiful shots of the Martian sunrise and sunset. Do you notice anything interesting in this picture? Exactly. The Martian setting sun has a more bluish tint than anything we have here on Earth.

3. Vera Rubin Ridge
The highest point in its journey thus far, Vera Rubin Ridge is another case of massive erosion and embedding of sediments. Though it’s impossible to tell at present just how each structure was formed, we do know that some were because of wind erosion, but others don’t seem to be that way based on looks alone. Showing that even Mars can have some weird and unknown structures.
2. The View Of Mars
At the top of the ridge, Curiosity took the opportunity to make a beautiful panoramic shot. Showing Mars from the height it was at, and showcasing the depth of field and the distance it had traveled so far. The fun is quite spectacular, and it makes you wonder what it will be like when Curiosity reaches the top of Mount Sharp. It hasn’t reached there yet, but it will soon more than likely.
1. A Hi-Res Panorama
We’ve shown you a lot of pictures over the course of this video, but now, let’s show you a literal brand new one that has come from the Curiosity Rover just days before this video was made. This was a panorama image that was made by the Curiosity Rover taken over the course of a “break” from late November to early December. This Panoramic image is comprised of 1000 photos and is 1.8 BILLION pixels.
The picture itself is of the Glen Torridon, a region on the flanks of Mars’ 3.4-mile-high (5.5 kilometers) Mount Sharp that the rover has been exploring recently.

#InsaneCuriosity #RecentSpaceDiscoveries #MarsEverythingAboutTheRedplanet

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