Tag Archives: science

The Future Of Space Exploration In 2021



2021 will be a year of incredible importance for the future of space exploration. It seems that the leading nations of our planet are finally convinced of the need to seriously commit resources and technologies in a new space race. So we will see the growth of new mega satellite constellations, we will witness the formation of orbiting human outposts, there will finally be the launch of a huge space telescope, we will see the definitive breakthrough of private companies on the scene, and the rise of new powers such as China, India, Arabia, Japan… And then the siege of the Moon, and then the siege of Mars…
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We have tried to condense all that will be important in 2021 in this video, listing month by month the enterprises that deserve to be followed.
January. On Jan. 17, the Parker Solar Probe, launched on Aug. 12, 2018, for the purpose of studying the Sun and its stellar wind will reach the perihelion of its seventh orbit, then head to Venus
On February 11, it will be the turn of the Chinese probe Tianwen-1, launched on July 23, 2020, to enter orbit around Mars. A mission that has already made history by ejecting last September a small camera capable of photographing the spacecraft during the trip. On April 23 the Tianwen-1 will drop a lander that will rest on the sands of Utopia Planitia, near the glorious Viking 2. In turn, the lander will release a rover.
Instead, the Mars 2020 mission will arrive on Feb. 18, consisting of a large rover, Perseverance, that will descend to the shore of the Jazero crater, which was once a lake.
Perseverance will conduct extensive chemical investigations to look for chemical evidence of Martian life and prepare rock samples intended to be collected and brought back to Earth by a joint NASA-ESA mission within the next decade.

March. On March 3, the Osiris Rex probe will begin its journey back to Earth with samples taken from the asteroid Bennu last October.

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Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Mark A. Garlick / MarkGarlick.com
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/ESA/ESO
Credits: Flickr

#InsaneCuriosity #spacexploration #thefuture

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Why Is It Hard To Colonize Mars?



Being the second smallest planet in the solar system and named after the Roman god of war, Mars is considered to be a desolate, frigid and inhospitable rock whose colonization is one of the biggest challenges in our century.
Curious to know why it is so hard to colonize Mars? Keep Watching!
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Mars exploration and colonization have been a fantasy and a really hard challenge for Humans in the current century. However, we are working to make this dream a reality where NASA is planning to put humans on Mars by the end of 2030. One of the biggest challenges is transporting astronauts and payload across the 34 million miles of space that exists between Mars and Earth, however, upon their arrival; humans will have to face many other challenges during the course of their mission. For instance, they will have to find solutions for life threatening problems such as the lack of water, thin atmosphere, the high levels of radiation, toxic soil, cold temperatures and low gravity. In this video, we’ll talk about each factor of these serious problems in detail.

1- Lack of Water, As we all know, water is the most important and essential factor when it comes to the lives of humans and their survival. However, Mars does not contain water or at least it does not contain water in a form suitable for human usage. There were signs of water on the red planet illustrated in some images sent by The Mariner 9 and Viking space probes back to the 1970s. Moreover, in 2018, a study was published in the science journal reporting that an approximately 12 miles in width lack; had been found and it’s located about a mile below the south pole of Mars. Additionally, scientists had found eight regions on Mars where soil erosion had uncovered huge areas of ice deposits below the Martian surface. In 2019, the American Geophysical Union reported that they located layers of ice and sand buried a mile beneath Mars’s north pole. All of this information demonstrates that Mars does contain water on its surface, however, the technology required to extract this embedded water is not available to us, Yet. NASA is working on this problem through forming partnerships in order to advance their mining technologies for use in space exploration. The results of these partnerships are very promising where in July 2019, along with Honeybee Robotics and the University of Central Florida, NASA showed off a prototype spacecraft that is called “The World Is Not Enough” or WINE, for short, it is a prototype of the size of a microwave oven specifically designed to mine soil on asteroids, extract water from this soil and then use it to generate steam in order to propel itself to its next mining destination. It’s a truly promising technology but it can be adapted to harvest water for Mars exploration.

2- Thin Atmosphere, an atmosphere is one of the most important factors that a planet must acquire in order to support human life and survival. However, Mars’s atmosphere is very thin and it’s made up of all the wrong combinations of gases. For example, it’s mostly composed of carbon dioxide, approximately 95.3% of Mars’s atmosphere is carbon dioxide which is a very high ratio compared to less than 1% on Earth. Moreover, Mars’s atmosphere has barely any oxygen, around 0.13% compared to 21% on Earth, which is very unfortunate due to the fact that humans need oxygen to breath. In addition to this, Mars’s atmosphere contains a very small ratio of nitrogen, around 2.7% compared to 78% on Earth which is also very unfortunate due to the fact that plants need nitrogen to survive.
Besides the wrong combinations of gases in Mars’s atmosphere, the atmospheric pressure is unfortunately quite low , around 6.1 millibars compared to 1,013.25 millibars on Earth.
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“If You happen to see any content that is yours, and we didn’t give credit in the right manner please let us know at Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com and we will correct it immediately”

“Some of our visual content is under an Attribution-ShareAlike license. ( in its different versions such as 1.0, 2.0, 3,0, and 4.0 – permitting commercial sharing with attribution given in each picture accordingly in the video.”

Credits: Mark A. Garlick / markgarlick.com
Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/ESA
Credits: Flickr

#InsaneCuriosity #MarsFactsAndHistory #MarsColonization

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What Is The Fermi Paradox?



Looking up at the night sky we can see an epic beauty above which is insane and blow away our minds. But beside this beauty there can be something scary also out there or maybe not. As C .Clarke said “ We are either alone in this universe or we are not. And both these ideas are equally scary. I think by know you would have guessed what we are talking about -Aliens. This concept of extra terrestrial life has played an important role in science fiction, which have introduced a wide range of theoretical ideas and also many conspiracy theories.

But many of you might be thinking why do we intend to find this extra terrestrial life and why haven’t we found them? Why search for them because they could have the potential to destroy us Well we think yes it might be the case but its our human nature and curiosity to find answers and also it will answer our important question, That are we alone in this universe?
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The universe is very vast and has billions of galaxies. These billions of galaxies have trillions and trillions of planets and many among them are habitable too. So where are they? The universe should be filled with spaceships and stuffs but where are they? But before that lets talk about how we look for life in outer project. The Search for extraterrestrial life abbreviated as SETI is an organisation that looks for life in Outer space. We use radio astronomy to look for outer life by sending signals out there in space and receiving and analysing signals. You all might have seen the movie Contact in which Jodi Foster sits in the desert and listens for signals from space. Well its not like that, all the analysing is done through complex computers. But why only radio? The aliens could be using some developed and advanced ways of communication, something like hyper-dimensional communication. It might be the case but we cannot detect that means of communication. Radio might be low-tech but can used to send signals to far distances in space. Radio can pass through interstellar dusts that block most of the light and other signals. A good example of that is the first image of black hole that was recently revealed by scientist with the help of radio telescopes all around the world.

According to a new analysis from scientists at the University of Nottingham, we don’t have a lot of alien company.On June 15, two researchers published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal arguing that the Milky Way – which sports about 250 billion stars – could host as few as 36 alien societies. That’s a small number, and rather less than the number of races that have appeared in Star Trek. NASA Kepler space telescope found habitable planets and based on its data scientist found out that nearly all stars have planets, probably more than one. Scientist usually determine it by observing if the planet is in the habitable zone of a star where liquid water can exist and atmosphere like Earth could exist. In our solar system also we have a habitable planet with water and life and thats our Earth. But there are other systems also in our solar system with liquid water. Jupiters moon Europa has a deep ocean below the frozen ice on the surface and life could exist there. We already know life can develop in extreme environments and evolves and Earth is a good example of that.

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“If You happen to see any content that is yours, and we didn’t give credit in the right manner please let us know at Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com and we will correct it immediately”

“Some of our visual content is under an Attribution-ShareAlike license. ( in its different versions such as 1.0, 2.0, 3,0, and 4.0 – permitting commercial sharing with attribution given in each picture accordingly in the video.”

Credits: Mark A. Garlick / markgarlick.com
Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/Esa
Credits: Flickr

#InsaneCuriosity #TheFermiParadox #Aliens

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2nd analysis, I think I was originally wrong! – Veritasium "The Big Misconception About Electricity"



I made a video response to Veritasium’s “The Big Misconception About Electricity” video, and while most people agreed with my response and Dave from EEVBlog had a very similar analysis, after thinking about it some more I think both Dave, me, and pretty much everyone was wrong and Veritasium was right all along!
A few commenters on the original video correctly pointed out that I should probably try real C and L values. I originally brushed it off thinking these values would be so small that it would be inconsequential, and while I know of transmission lines I assumed the characteristic impedance would be in the megaohms.
I think a lot of people familiar with ECE also thought the same. Even the EEVBlog video mentioned the current would be really “nuff all”, but this is not true! When plugging in real world values, we actually do get a significant amount of power, enough to light a LED.
Not only that, this new analysis shows the light can actually be continuously on, and that the instantaneous “blip” on-time from both my original video and EEVBlog’s video is probably also wrong and an artifact of how we did our analysis.
Also this analysis shows that only under a very special case will you have a 1s full brightness response. Most cases either the light is on immediately, or ramps up way after 1s. Basically this core fact that almost everyone agreed on was at least true is also kind of wrong!
I originally believed that Veritasium was correct and made my video to show Derek was correct, but only on a technicality because I thought he needed a magic light bulb that lights under even a tiny current. However now I think he is correct all along and it’s even realistically feasible to boot.

Addendum: With a perfectly matched load of 1.5k ohms, here the steady state power is 96mW, and our transient response is half that at 48mW (50%). If we use a 300 ohm load, we only get 2.7% power transfer. With a 6k load, you’ll get lower power but a higher % of power at 10V (75% in the first 1s).

Circuit Link:

Timestamps
0:00 Background
1:20 Original Model and Explanation
3:35 Quick Transmission Line Characteristic Impedance Review
6:30 Simple Transmission Line Simulation
8:28 Simple Transmission Line Simulation – Unmatched Loads
10:33 Simulation of Veritasium’s Question
12:16 Using a Realistic Light Bulb
13:34 The “Blip” Mistake
15:31 The “1s” Mistake
17:45 Using a Light Bulb of Higher Resistance
19:12 Conclusions
20:49 Bonus: simulation with cut ends
23:18 TLDR Summaries

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Extreme Weather | MinuteEarth Explains



Thanks to Keeps for sponsoring this video. Go to to learn more and to get 50% off your first order of hair loss treatment!

In this collection of classic MinuteEarth videos, we take a look at some of the most extreme weather on Earth and its consequences.

0:00 – Intro
0:11 – The Hottest Place on Earth |
2:23 – How To Avoid The Next Atlantis |
4:45 – Are “Acts of God” Disappearing? |
7:36 – This Is Your Brain On Extreme Weather |
10:03 – Outro

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Science Cafe: Discover the Art of Science



“To develop a complete mind: Study the science of art; Study the art of science. Learn how to see. Realize that everything connects to everything else.” ― Leonardo da Vinci
Discover how one artist draws inspiration from research in physics, philosophy, psychology, sound, astronomy, myth, magic and poetry.

Guest speaker and local artist Alyssa Miserendino will explore and answer questions about what can result from projects and partnerships among seemingly different fields, and how art exploration through science and technology ignites transformation and imagination. The City’s Raleigh Arts Office will discuss the importance of cross-collaboration in public art within our community. Now more than ever, Raleigh is home to a creative community brimming in arts, culture, science, technology, and entrepreneurship – and they all connect.
YouTube video credit: “What is the Uncertainty Principle,” MinutePhysics:
Audio Recordings Credits:
Journey of Curiosity:
Sound Matters:
On Being:

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What Is A White Hole?



What Is A White Hole? The universe is definitely filled with a lot of strange objects, but what if the strangest and most mysterious object that we know has another level of strangeness we haven’t come across yet? Find out what it is in today’s episode!

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We have explained white holes.
When I was young, I came across Bertrand Russell’s floating teapot in the solar system, you know, the one that you can and can’t say doesn’t exist? Back at that time, I certainly thought “Wow, the universe couldn’t get any stranger than this!”

But as I grew older, I’ve stumbled upon a huge number of other things that are definitely stranger than a floating teapo: There are binary stars consuming one another, magnetars, what strange force pulls objects towards the center of the Laniakea supercluster, and many more. At this point, I thought “okay, a teapot floating about just way past Pluto seems more regular”. Anybody suddenly thirsty for some tea?

Okay, enough about kitchenware free falling several million kilometers from us. Today, I want to talk about another mysterious cousin of the planets and the stars; today, let’s talk about white holes.

Now, I get it. I know that name sounds utterly unrealistic and totally made up, but I swear this is going to be worth your time.

According to Kant, one of the most geniuses to ever exist, we can only understand something in reference to another thing that we already know. For instance, to be able to describe what a dragon is, early humans have used reptiles as a reference.

And although the result is a purely fictional creature in today’s standards, it certainly has generated a lot of crazy tales and marvelous stories.

So, borrowing from that notion, to help us understand exactly what white holes are, let’s compare it in contrast with the thing that is a complement of its nature: Let’s compare it with black holes, and see what how they are similar and different.

Okay, now that we have a strategy in place. Why don’t we start with the simplest definition that we can say about a white hole.

In an extremely rudimentary sense, a white hole is..well, the opposite of a black hole. Like, totally literally. Let me explain.

If you can recall one of the simplest definitions of a black hole that one can find is that it is an object in space wherein nothing — not even light — can escape. Even information, the only thing that people thought before would be impossible to break apart, would also break inside a black hole. Can you even begin to imagine how strong that is? Well if you can’t, we made an entire feature about black holes so why don’t you go check that out after watching this video?

So okay, if that’s a black hole, what’s a white hole then? An object or region in space where everything can escape? If that’s your answer, that’s very close but not quite. Good analogy, though!

Think of watching an open manhole in the road where water falls in. When the current is strong, you can place a small object on it and it gets sucked automatically, right? This is like the black hole. Now, imagine going underground and you’re now looking straight up on the manhole where water is pouring onto you. It will feel like things will just come into it with no obstruction at all. This is how you can think of how a white hole works.

In a basic sense, a white hole is a region in space that nothing can ever enter from the outside. The only thing that’s certain is that things — matter and light — can only come out of it. Imagine how bright white holes could be! And the level of radiation here could imply that calling it a “white hole” could be a severe oversimplification.

Another thing that these two universal twins have in common is that they both have their own event horizon, do you remember what that is?

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“If You happen to see any content that is yours, and we didn’t give credit in the right manner please let us know at Lorenzovareseaziendale@gmail.com and we will correct it immediately”

“Some of our visual content is under an Attribution-ShareAlike license. ( in its different versions such as 1.0, 2.0, 3,0, and 4.0 – permitting commercial sharing with attribution given in each picture accordingly in the video.”

Credits: Ron Miller
Credits: Mark A. Garlick / MarkGarlick.com
Credits: Nasa/Shutterstock/Storyblocks/Elon Musk/SpaceX/ESA/ESO
Credits: Flickr

#InsaneCuriosity #WhiteHole #BlackHole

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The Problem with Biofuels



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Credits:
Writer/Narrator: Brian McManus
Editor: Stephanie Sammann (
Animator: Mike Ridolfi (
Sound: Graham Haerther (
Thumbnail: Simon Buckmaster

References:

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[8] [20d]
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[10] [21c]
[11] [21d]
[12] [21f]
[13] [19c]
[14] [21a]
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[17] [23a]
[18] [22b]
[19] [21]
[20] [21e]
[21] [25]
[22]
[23]
[24]
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Thank you to AP Archive for access to their archival footage.

Music by Epidemic Sound:

Thank you to my patreon supporters: Adam Flohr, Henning Basma, Hank Green, William Leu, Tristan Edwards, Ian Dundore, John & Becki Johnston. Nevin Spoljaric, Jason Clark, Thomas Barth, Johnny MacDonald, Stephen Foland, Alfred Holzheu, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Binghaith, Brent Higgins, Dexter Appleberry, Alex Pavek, Marko Hirsch, Mikkel Johansen, Hibiyi Mori. Viktor Józsa, Ron Hochsprung

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