Tag Archives: the big bang

history of the entire world, i guess (cosmology)



history of the entire world, i guess (cosmology)
(Unification of the fundamental forces and baryogenesis in the early universe)
(CC: closed captions added)

Knowing God’s thoughts: Einstein’s unfinished dream – Public lecture by Dr. Don Lincoln:

history of the entire world, i guess:

#minutephysics#Cosmology#BigBang#Baryogenesis#ParticlePhysics

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0:00 Fundamental forces in the early universe
1:33 Baryogenesis and Sakharov conditions

How did everything get started? Has the universe a beginning or was it here since forever? Well, evidence suggests that there was indeed a starting point to this universe we are part of right now. But how can this be? How can something come from nothing? And what about time? We don’t have all the answers yet so let’s talk about what we know.

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Multiverse Theory: Are We A Part Of Infinite Parallel Realities?



Is our Universe just one of many in an infinite, ever-expanding multiverse? What exactly is the multiverse? Is it just a speculation of us humans or could it be that our universe is a part of a multiverse? In this article we will discuss these questions.
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We have used the theory of multiple universes in cosmology, physics, philosophy, astronomy, religion, science fiction, comic books and fantasy. But we will look at the scientific aspect of it. We will only focus on the evidences and facts and observations made by astronomers and then draw a conclusion on the topic. 
The three dimensional world which we witness in our daily lives may just be an illusion where there is no distinction between past, present and future. But how is it possible? How can we be so wrong about something so familiar? These questions bother almost all astronomers and physicist. It’s a groundbreaking possibility that opens up a whole different world for us. We will discuss an important Question. What if alternative Universes are being formed all the time? The Big Bang might not be a unique event. We might live In a duplicate parallel reality among the many other parallel realities.  Somewhere there’s a duplicate of you, me and everyone else. Are we in a Universe or a Multiverse? 
Uniqueness is an idea so usual that no one questions it. A recent picture of the cosmos is coming to light, where nothing is unique. This recent picture challenges the notion of Uniqueness, in which duplicates of things are unavoidable. There might be duplicates, not only of objects but of me, you and everyone else.  And if it’s right, where are they? Why haven’t we seen them? There was a time when the word Universe meant everything that existed, the notion of more than one universe seemed impossible. But if we go beyond our Milky Way and even beyond the distant galaxies and beyond the end of the observable Universe, we might find that our Universe is not alone. There might be other Universes, in-fact, there might be new universes being born all the time might have stars and even a planet that looks familiar. We may be live in an expanding sea of Multiverse! Some of these might not have the basic requirements for the formation of matter. Others might have planets, stars and Galaxies that look familiar to us but with a slight difference. And if there are many other Universes out there, some might be even identical to ours except for the slightest Details. For Example, in any other parallel reality, it might be possible I am the Prime Minister of India. And if the multiverse exists, we will have to encounter a lot of possibilities that might exist. There could be other places where duplicates of me would exist and would think, act and speak in the same way as I do, but with some slight differences. 
Is it science, is it religion, is it Philosophy? As a Physicist we should not and we don’t ask these questions. We follow the logic, and the logic leads there. There was a time when people thought Earth was at the centre of the Cosmos and everything else that exists revolved around us. Then scientists like Galileo and Copernicus showed us it’s the sun that’s at the centre of our solar system. And our solar system is just a little neighbourhood in our Gigantic Galaxy. And our galaxy, it’s among the billions of galaxies that make up our universe. These ideas sounded shocking and outrageous when they were first suggested, but now we don’t even think to question these ideas. The idea of different alternate universes or the multiverse might be the same.  It just requires a radical change in our perspective of the cosmos. 
So let’s talk about where did the idea of Multiverse came from? What are the evidences of its existence? Well, a lot of astonishing discoveries and theories have suggested we may be a part of the multiverse. The very first among them is the Big Bang, the theory of the origin of our universe. According to this theory, our Universe began 13.8 billion years ago in a very hot and dense, violen* explosio* of a very tiny primordial nugget. Over millions and millions of years the universe cooled down and it lead to the formation of Stars, galaxies and planets. The universe is still expanding because of that explosio*. But there’s one major piece of this theory that’s missing. The Big Bang tells nothing about what caused the explosio*, throwing everything outwards. What caused the BANG? So, what furled the violen* explosio*? What force could set everything moving outwards? 
In 1979, a young physicist Alan Guth laid the foundation of the idea of the multiverse.

Written By Prayag Pandey

#InsaneCuriosity #MultiverseTheory

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What Caused The Big Bang?

What Caused The Big Bang?

The Universe began not with a whimper but with a Bang! Everything in this Universe and the Universe itself came into existence because of the commonly told Big Bang.
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It all started when in 1922, a Russian Meteorologist, Alexander Friedmann proposed that the universe might be expanding. In a very rare blunder, Albert Einstein, when came to know about this, rejected his theory and with his erroneous calculations proved him wrong. Five years earlier, Einstein had published the Static model of the universe and was very convinced that it was correct. He claimed Friedmann’s theory to be violating the conservation of energy. After eight months, however, Einstein admitted his mistake and published a retraction. The Equation of General Relativity allows for the possibility of an Expanding Universe.
Today this Big Bang theory is an accepted idea of cosmology. The Expansion of the Universe was first observed by Vesto Slipher in the Early 1920s and in 1929, Edwin Hubble who had access to some world’s largest telescopes gave the Hubble Law. According to it, every distant galaxy is moving away from each other with a velocity proportional to its distance. The farther away a galaxy is, greater is the velocity with which it moves away. Then Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected a background of microwave radiation known as the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) radiations today, coming to Earth from all the directions. It was an afterglow of the primordial, hot and dense Fireball. Today, with the data collected from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite fits perfectly with the Big Bang and that it accounted for the light nuclear isotopes like deuterium, hydrogen, helium-3 and others. The Big Bang theory is a success but in its traditional form as it was proposed is incomplete. Though it’s called the Big Bang Theory, it does not tell us anything about the Bang! It’s the theory of what happened after the Big Bang, describing how the universe cooled and expanded, and how mater formed different Stars and Galaxies. The theory does not tell us anything about the underlying physics of this explosio*. It not even mentions what caused the Bang, what Bange*, why it Bange* and what happened before the Bang! The inflationary cosmos explains this and we will discuss the physics behind it in this video.
Could the Big Bang have been caused by the gigantic bag of TNT, or a thermonuclear explosio*? Or maybe a gigantic ball of matter collided with a gigantic ball of anti-matter. In fact, none of these events are responsible for the Big Bang and start of our Universe. The Big Bang had two very special and distinct features that differentiated it from any typical explanation.
First, On large scales Big Bang was far more homogenous than any ordinary explosio*. We must clarify you first while discussing homogeneity, that the Universe is inhomogeneous in many ways. New York differs from California and so are the Stars, galaxies and the clusters scattered through the space in a complex pattern. Cosmologically, these are all small scale. On a large scale, like if we divide the Universe into cubes of 300 million light years or more. We would find that each cube resembles the others in all its properties like mass density, light output, etc. The biggest evidence of it is the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB)  Radiations and data from the COBE satellite. We would need a brief history about the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to explain the uniformity of our Universe. The Early Universe was boiling and dense and it would rip apart the electrons from the atoms which resulted in a plasma that filled the space. This  plasma was very opaque. So the protons making up the Cosmic Microwave Background radiations, were absorbed and re-emitted constantly. After about 300,000 years the universe cooled to form a transparent plasma of neutral atoms. Since then, the photons have travelled on a straight path and provide us an image of a universe that was 300,000 years old.
Normally such uniformity is easy to explain, because anything comes to a uniform temperature when left undisturbed for a long time. But in the Big Bang theory, the universe develops quickly, leaving no time for the universe to evolve and uniformity to be established. For the sake of discussion lets pretend that the universe contains blue creatures, each having a furnace and refrigerator and have the task to create a uniform temperature.
#InsaneCuriosity #TheBigBang

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The Most Massive Objects In The Universe!

The Most Massive Objects In The Universe!

Did you know that our universe is so big that we cannot really approximate its actual size?
Now that you can imagine how our universe is extremely big, it’s easy to grasp that it’s filled with wonder-souly massive objects. Curious to know these objects in order? Keep watching!
The Most Massive Objects in the Universe.

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Prior to stating the list of the most massive objects in the universe, it’s crucial to understand the concept of mass along with the astronomical mass units. Mass by definition is the measure of the amount of matter in an object usually measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg), however due to the difficulties in measuring and expressing astronomical data in the international system of units (SI units); the Astronomical System of Units was developed in 1979 in which there was a redefinition of units of mass, time and length and the astronomical constants as well.
The astronomical unit of mass is the solar mass aka the mass of the sun which is approximately equal to 1.98892 * 10^(30) kg and it’s the standard unit of describing the mass of stars and galaxies.

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When it comes to cosmology, the term object is a loose concept because the universe is filled up with so many objects such as planets, stars, black holes and pulsars. However, one must ask “is any structure of gravitationally bound matter considered to be an object?” If the answer is yes, then we must consider nebulae, galaxies, galaxy clusters and the clusters of the galaxy clusters as objects as well. Moreover, we should consider the cosmic web, which is an overarching structure that holds all the matter in the universe as an object. Therefore, in this video we are introducing the most massive objects in the universe covering most of their types in descending order:

10- As you probably know, the most massive object in the universe from the beginning of time is the universe itself right before the moment of the big bang. The big bang model states that the universe at the beginning 13.7 billion years ago was in an extremely hot and dense state, just try to imagine the total mass of the universe condensed into extremely infinitesimally small point-like singularity.

9- Dark Energy; which constitutes 68% of the universe- you may wonder how on earth would energy be massive?! But thanks to Einstein’s energy-mass famous equation E=mc^(2) where c is the speed of light, transforming energy into mass is trivial. You may also have heard of the dark energy previously but let me explain its importance in detail… scientists in the early 1990s were fairly certain about some dynamics of the universe’s expansion; such that it might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse or it might have so little energy that it would never stop expanding, however, the gravitational forces were certain to slow the expansion as time went on due to the fact that our universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. However, in 1998, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae showed that a long time ago; the universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. In other words, the expansion of the universe has not been slowing down due to gravity, as everyone expected, but it has been accelerating and something was causing this acceleration. Eventually, theorists still do not know what the correct explanation is but they have given the solution a name, it’s called the dark energy.
More is unknown than is known about dark energy, the amount of dark energy is known because we know how it influences the universe’s expansion. There Are three possible explanations of dark energy, One explanation is that it’s a property of space -yes space has many amazing properties, many of which are just beginning to be understood- Einstein was the first to realize that empty space can possess its own energy, furthermore, it’s possible for more space to come into existence. And because this energy is a property of space itself, it would not be diluted as the space expands. Additionally, as more space comes into existence, more of this space-energy will appear which will be the reason that the universe will expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, there are some issues regarding this fancy model and related to the cosmological constant.
8- Dark matter which constitutes 27% of the universe.

#InsaneCuriosity #MostMassiveObjectsInTheUniverse #TheBiggestStar #TheBiggestBlackhole

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