Tag Archives: universe

What Is The Fermi Paradox?



Looking up at the night sky we can see an epic beauty above which is insane and blow away our minds. But beside this beauty there can be something scary also out there or maybe not. As C .Clarke said “ We are either alone in this universe or we are not. And both these ideas are equally scary. I think by know you would have guessed what we are talking about -Aliens. This concept of extra terrestrial life has played an important role in science fiction, which have introduced a wide range of theoretical ideas and also many conspiracy theories.

But many of you might be thinking why do we intend to find this extra terrestrial life and why haven’t we found them? Why search for them because they could have the potential to destroy us Well we think yes it might be the case but its our human nature and curiosity to find answers and also it will answer our important question, That are we alone in this universe?
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The universe is very vast and has billions of galaxies. These billions of galaxies have trillions and trillions of planets and many among them are habitable too. So where are they? The universe should be filled with spaceships and stuffs but where are they? But before that lets talk about how we look for life in outer project. The Search for extraterrestrial life abbreviated as SETI is an organisation that looks for life in Outer space. We use radio astronomy to look for outer life by sending signals out there in space and receiving and analysing signals. You all might have seen the movie Contact in which Jodi Foster sits in the desert and listens for signals from space. Well its not like that, all the analysing is done through complex computers. But why only radio? The aliens could be using some developed and advanced ways of communication, something like hyper-dimensional communication. It might be the case but we cannot detect that means of communication. Radio might be low-tech but can used to send signals to far distances in space. Radio can pass through interstellar dusts that block most of the light and other signals. A good example of that is the first image of black hole that was recently revealed by scientist with the help of radio telescopes all around the world.

According to a new analysis from scientists at the University of Nottingham, we don’t have a lot of alien company.On June 15, two researchers published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal arguing that the Milky Way – which sports about 250 billion stars – could host as few as 36 alien societies. That’s a small number, and rather less than the number of races that have appeared in Star Trek. NASA Kepler space telescope found habitable planets and based on its data scientist found out that nearly all stars have planets, probably more than one. Scientist usually determine it by observing if the planet is in the habitable zone of a star where liquid water can exist and atmosphere like Earth could exist. In our solar system also we have a habitable planet with water and life and thats our Earth. But there are other systems also in our solar system with liquid water. Jupiters moon Europa has a deep ocean below the frozen ice on the surface and life could exist there. We already know life can develop in extreme environments and evolves and Earth is a good example of that.

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#InsaneCuriosity #TheFermiParadox #Aliens

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क्या हो अगर गॉडज़िला वास्तव में हो | What If Godzilla Was Real?

क्या हो अगर गॉडज़िला वास्तव में हो | What If Godzilla Was Real?

ये बड़ा है, डरावना है, और इसे तबाही लाने में मज़ा आता है। मिलिए शैतानों के राजा-गॉडज़िला से। क्या आपको लगता है आपका साल अच्छा नहीं जा रहा? कैसा रहेगा अगर हम अपने मुंह से रेडिएशन निकालने वाले सोए हुए बड़े दानव को जगा दें? क्या होगा अगर गॉडज़िला जाग उठे? क्या गॉडज़िला जैसा कोई जीव वाकई हो सकता है? और, हम इसका सामना कैसे करेंगे?

क्या हो अगर एक मिनी-डॉक्यूमेंट्री वेब श्रृंखला है जो आपको काल्पनिक दुनिया और संभावनाओं के माध्यम से एक महाकाव्य यात्रा पर ले जाती है। हमें एक काल्पनिक साहसिक कार्य में शामिल करें – वैज्ञानिक सिद्धांत में आधारित – समय, स्थान और संयोग के माध्यम से, जैसा कि हम पूछते हैं कि क्या हमारे अस्तित्व के कुछ सबसे मौलिक पहलू अलग थे।

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What If We Could See Through a Black Hole?

What If We Could See Through a Black Hole?

Get more insightful information about black holes with Pr. Clifford Johnson:

This star is about to transform into a black hole. And we’re about to travel inside it to see what’s on the other side. The only problem is that we’ll never be able to report our findings back to Earth. Because once you go inside a black hole, there’s no coming back. So maybe there’s a better way to find out what’s on the other side. Could we use a special telescope? How would light behave inside a black hole? And why could the first image of a black hole provide all the answers?

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Einstein's Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Made Easy!

From what it is, to its impact on the world at large, join us as we explore Einstein’s Theory of Relativity made easy, and explain it so everyone can understand it. (Simplified)

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Watch Our “Wormhole Theory Explained – Breaking Spacetime!”

So where do we start with something as big and as complicated as the Theory of Relativity? I’m sure some of you wouldn’t even know what it is outside of its name, which is fine. But I’m sure you do know the man who came up with the idea, Albert Einstein. Einstein is revered as one of the smartest people to ever live, and he helped shape how we perceive both our world and our universe. So it might surprise you that this very brilliant man once started off as nothing more than a patent clerk. No, really, he did, and that’s part of the origin story to the Theory of Relativity.
Because one day, after doing his work at the patent office, he went on a trolley car to go home. And he would do this day after day after day. This is important because while he was on that car, he would think about the universe at large. He would ask himself questions and try to figure out the answers as best he could with the information he had. And one day, he was going away from a clock tower when he asked what would happen if the car he was on was going away from the clock tower…at the speed of light.
This may seem like an odd question to ask, but lightspeed travel is something that scientists are honestly trying to achieve right now, and these questions were truly the building blocks of this really happening. Anyway, back to the clock tower. Einstein theorized, as well as realized, that if he was moving the speed of light (which if you don’t know is 299,792,458 meters per second), the hands on the clock tower (meaning the minute hand and the hour hand) would quite literally appear to stop in place.
But, he also knew that while he himself was traveling at the speed of light and seeing everything stop more or less, everyone who was at the clock tower, and seeing things in “normal time” would not see them stop. The clock tower and its hands would keep ticking along as if nothing wrong.
Yet in this experiment, for Albert Einstein, time had literally slowed down, and it was at this moment that the “light bulb” went off in his head. Because it was through this experiment that he realized that if you go faster and faster through space, you’re actually causing time to go slower around you. But how was this possible if time was quite literally a constant force in the universe?
To try and answer this, Einstein would look to some of the other fathers of science to try and figure out the missing points in his equation. For example, he looked at the three laws of motion via Sir Isaac Newton. Newton notes that while objects do move at a certain speed, their values are never an absolute. Mainly because every speed we go at is based on a force imparted on something, or relative to something else. Such as how a car can go 65 miles per hour on a highway…but that’s only because the ground and friction ALLOW it to do so. No friction on the road? You’re not going that speed. Thus why he notes that every speed has to have “in respect to” another force or object that is allowing or perceiving that object’s speed.
However, in contrast, there is James Clark Maxwell, the father of electromagnetism, who notes that of all the things in the universe, it is light that is fixed. And as noted, light goes 299,792,458 meters per second. That will never change. That speed is another constant force in the universe. Anyone, anywhere in the world, or even anywhere in the universe will be able to determine that the speed of light is the same, it won’t change, and that’s part of the reason why the universe works like it does, because the speed of light is constant, right?
But therein lies the problem, or at least, Einstein realized that this was a problem. Because Newton said that no speed in the universe could be an absolute. But then Maxwell counters this by saving the speed of light is ALWAYS a constant. Which means that these two very universal and very accepted pieces of science are at a contradiction. Which is something you never want in the world of science, trust me.
If you’re still not getting the full picture of why this is a problem, here’s another thought experiment from Einstein to help explain it.
Imagine you are at a train station, and you are standing out on the platform when a storm comes. Then, out of the blue, two lightning bolts strike on either side of you. Because of your position in the middle of these lightning bolts, you perceive them at the exact same time, and the light reaches you at that same time.

Theory Of Relativity: Einstein’s Twin Paradox!

#InsaneCuriosity #Theory of Relativity #PhysicsHowTheUniverseWorks

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What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

What If We Settled on an Exoplanet?

Are you looking for a change of scenery? Are you tired of boring old Earth?
How would you like a new home away from home? Really far away from home. Like outside our Solar System far. What exoplanet would suit us best? Are there any pros? And more importantly, what are the cons?

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What is the Great Attractor?

What is the Great Attractor?

Is there anything in the universe that’s just so eccentric, so breathtaking, and so beyond our understanding, that it gets a badass name? That’s what we’ll find out together in today’s episode! What is the Great Attractor?
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Okay, let’s do a bit of thought experiment to kick off the show.

I bet everybody here has been to the mall, right? Have you ever experienced a time when you are walking, and suddenly, you saw a bunch of people moving towards something?

Now, you don’t know what it is. You don’t know if it’s some food stall that’s really hitting the sales, or a new product being sold. You just know that it’s pulling people towards it. And to top it all off, you, with your ever curious mind, gets drawn to it as well! So, before you know it, you start walking.

It’s crazy, right? You don’t know why people are gathering, and yet you are attracted to that place where you’re absolutely clueless about what’s there to see, or even if what’s there could harm you. You just know that you’re curious and you want to find out. Something that you don’t understand is too charismatic for you to resist.

That, my dear friends, is the characteristic of our topic for today. A weird thing in space that is so bizarre, so unimaginably weird, and so difficult to grasp, that all we can do is to give it an appropriate name, The Great Attractor.

I hope we can say that The Great Attractor is a gigantic floating Harry Styles or Captain Ri from CLOY lightyears away in space from us, but that’s the problem. We don’t exactly know what it is. But we don’t actually know, so why not? It may actually be Henry Cavill in space.

Is he still popular now? I’m not keeping up with Hollywood stuff. Moving on.

Okay, here’s what we know about it so far. We don’t know what it is, but we know that it’s there. We’re sure it’s there, and we can see signs that it’s there.

It’s like having a gigantic stuffed toy in a very, very dark room. We can touch the fur, and we can feel how soft it is, maybe even smell it a bit, but that’s all the information we have. We’re not sure if it’s really a stuffed toy. It could be something else entirely.

So what are our observations leading us to think that it’s there? What are our touches to the fur and our sniffs to it?

We know that Hubble’s observations in 1929 lead us to believe that the universe is actually expanding, after he realized that a lot of galaxies are moving away from us. And not just moving away, it’s moving at an extremely fast pace faster than the speed of light.

This phenomenon is now something that we know as the Hubble flow: the movement of the galaxies due to the expansion of the universe.

To make that more visually appealing, say that you have a balloon that hasn’t been blown up yet. To add a little more playfulness, let’s say you decided to draw some random dots on it.

Now, you can measure the distance between the dots you made in the balloon, right? Okay, say at this point, you find a pump and you start blowing air into the balloon. Naturally, the balloon expands. But what else is happening here? The dots you drew earlier are now moving apart from one another. If earlier, one dot is a centimeter from another, now it’s maybe 5 centimeters.

The dot didn’t move, but it’s now farther away from the other because where it’s drawn at expanded.

The universe does this as well. It expands in a way similar to what we described in the balloon analogy. The galaxies are moving apart from one another at some velocity, so we expect them to be farther and farther from one another at a constant rate, right?

Oddly, this is not what scientists observe to be actually happening. Instead, they see a lot of galaxies seemingly gravitate towards a region in space. Even our very own Milky Way galaxy! The Great Attractor!

What scientists are sure of is that whatever it is, it’s definitely one powerful gravitational anomaly.

So how exactly did scientists arrive at this conclusion? That we are heading something so mysterious and puzzling?

Well, firstly, there’s this thing called expectation. The universe is expanding at an astoundingly fast rate of 2.2 million kilometers per hour!

So keeping this in mind, then, if we try to measure the speed at which a nearby galaxy is moving away from us, say, Andromeda, then we ought to get that speed right? Apparently not. This is one of the first odd measurements scientists found.

#InsaneCuriosity #TheGreatAttractor #HowTheUniverseWorks

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What Caused The Big Bang?

What Caused The Big Bang?

The Universe began not with a whimper but with a Bang! Everything in this Universe and the Universe itself came into existence because of the commonly told Big Bang.
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It all started when in 1922, a Russian Meteorologist, Alexander Friedmann proposed that the universe might be expanding. In a very rare blunder, Albert Einstein, when came to know about this, rejected his theory and with his erroneous calculations proved him wrong. Five years earlier, Einstein had published the Static model of the universe and was very convinced that it was correct. He claimed Friedmann’s theory to be violating the conservation of energy. After eight months, however, Einstein admitted his mistake and published a retraction. The Equation of General Relativity allows for the possibility of an Expanding Universe.
Today this Big Bang theory is an accepted idea of cosmology. The Expansion of the Universe was first observed by Vesto Slipher in the Early 1920s and in 1929, Edwin Hubble who had access to some world’s largest telescopes gave the Hubble Law. According to it, every distant galaxy is moving away from each other with a velocity proportional to its distance. The farther away a galaxy is, greater is the velocity with which it moves away. Then Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson detected a background of microwave radiation known as the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) radiations today, coming to Earth from all the directions. It was an afterglow of the primordial, hot and dense Fireball. Today, with the data collected from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite fits perfectly with the Big Bang and that it accounted for the light nuclear isotopes like deuterium, hydrogen, helium-3 and others. The Big Bang theory is a success but in its traditional form as it was proposed is incomplete. Though it’s called the Big Bang Theory, it does not tell us anything about the Bang! It’s the theory of what happened after the Big Bang, describing how the universe cooled and expanded, and how mater formed different Stars and Galaxies. The theory does not tell us anything about the underlying physics of this explosio*. It not even mentions what caused the Bang, what Bange*, why it Bange* and what happened before the Bang! The inflationary cosmos explains this and we will discuss the physics behind it in this video.
Could the Big Bang have been caused by the gigantic bag of TNT, or a thermonuclear explosio*? Or maybe a gigantic ball of matter collided with a gigantic ball of anti-matter. In fact, none of these events are responsible for the Big Bang and start of our Universe. The Big Bang had two very special and distinct features that differentiated it from any typical explanation.
First, On large scales Big Bang was far more homogenous than any ordinary explosio*. We must clarify you first while discussing homogeneity, that the Universe is inhomogeneous in many ways. New York differs from California and so are the Stars, galaxies and the clusters scattered through the space in a complex pattern. Cosmologically, these are all small scale. On a large scale, like if we divide the Universe into cubes of 300 million light years or more. We would find that each cube resembles the others in all its properties like mass density, light output, etc. The biggest evidence of it is the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB)  Radiations and data from the COBE satellite. We would need a brief history about the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to explain the uniformity of our Universe. The Early Universe was boiling and dense and it would rip apart the electrons from the atoms which resulted in a plasma that filled the space. This  plasma was very opaque. So the protons making up the Cosmic Microwave Background radiations, were absorbed and re-emitted constantly. After about 300,000 years the universe cooled to form a transparent plasma of neutral atoms. Since then, the photons have travelled on a straight path and provide us an image of a universe that was 300,000 years old.
Normally such uniformity is easy to explain, because anything comes to a uniform temperature when left undisturbed for a long time. But in the Big Bang theory, the universe develops quickly, leaving no time for the universe to evolve and uniformity to be established. For the sake of discussion lets pretend that the universe contains blue creatures, each having a furnace and refrigerator and have the task to create a uniform temperature.
#InsaneCuriosity #TheBigBang

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Why  Space Research  Is So Important!

Why Space Research Is So Important!

In recent years, people’s interest in all countries on the planet in space exploration has soared.
Many controversies have been raised regarding whether money should be spent on Space research while there are many problems in our inhabited planet, earth and especially in Humanity. There is poverty, financial issues. And still so much attention into Space exploration. Why?
Join me I show you reasons why Space research is very important.
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We have seen NASA announcing findings in other planets, solar systems and companies such as SpaceX undergo space projects. For instance we have determined the approximate age of the universe, we found water on Mars, we discovered the first exoplanets in 1992, between the years of 2004 and 2005 three new dwarf planets that exist in our solar system came into our attention and so much more.
But many keep on claiming. What is the point in all of this?
In order for a space exploration to happen, much money needs to be spent. For this reason many people seem to raise questions when it comes to space exploration whether money should be spent on space missions while there are many issues that are happening in our planet that we haven’t solved, and need financial support. So instead of exploring space, money should be spent for Earth’s needs.
Some others consider that, since we already visited the moon in 1969, we don’t need space travel anymore. isn’t it enough?
Well, there are many reasons why space exploration is important and I will try to explain my point of you on this topic and why space research is more significant than we think and vital to humanity.
Before we continue with the significance of space exploration, be sure to like or dislike the video so that we can continue improve and make these videos better for you the viewer. Plus, be sure to subscribe to the channel so that you don’t miss any of our weekly videos!

Now let’s start analyzing our topic.
Well Universe!
Can you imagine the feeling the astronauts who first landed on the moon must felt looking back at the earth? Breaking through into space travel, leaving earth and defeating gravity, taking steps on the moon?
I bet the feeling would be unique! As they had the opportunity to see earth from a distance and be the first ones to acknowledge it! Imagine being in there position! I think many are jealous that they didn’t live this experience. For them this incident can’t be compared with anything else, and while we didn’t know at this time, this mission advanced our Humanity, and raised the interest on figuring out the Universe! Only goo results can come out of this as we are learning who we are and becoming strong.
But what is the real motive behind exploration. Why do you want to explore and go out of our comfort zone instead of carrying only about what is going on on Earth?
Well, the main reason why moon landing happened in 1969 and, is because humans are driven to explore the unknown, discover new worlds and push the boundaries of the scientific limits. Like it or not, we are by nature explorers who want tο push further and challenge the boundaries of what we already know and we want to learn always something new that can cause a whole new reality. We love exploring the world, travelling abroad visiting other countries and places, collecting memories and experiencing feelings. The same happens on a bigger level by exploring the universe. We are never satisfy and we always want more. People try to achieve these feats for reasons that are not necessarily rational. A few years ago we confirmed the existence of dark matter and we couldn’t do that without space exploration. What is the value of this knowledge? It’s hard to guess today.
And what keeps us going is the fact that we can discover everyday something new and in this way we advance human race. Imagination remains our most powerful attribute and we don’t want to stay stable in only one thing. That is what we do. We always explore. We overcome obstacles not because we have to, but because we want to. We can’t live without progress and curiosity is in our blood.
In this point we need to make clear that exploration isn’t just only about curiosity though, as exploration is necessary for advancement in general. If it wasn’t for the Space exploration we wouldn’t have advanced technologies.
The space research has led us to expand our scientific knowledge and have development of various technologies that improve our lives on Earth and also the economy. The world that we have created today, is the result of several years worth of knowledge, much of which has been built through exploration.

#InsaneCuriosity #SpaceResearch #SpaceFacts

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9 Strangest Galaxies In The Universe!

9 Strangest Galaxies In The Universe!

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From galaxies that are shaped weirdly, to ones that have unique properties, join me as I show you the strangest galaxies in the universe!
9. ESO 137-001
I want you to think about the “shapes” of universes. Depending on the pictures you look at, you likely think of things like the spirals that many galaxies are believed to be shaped as. But in the case of ESO 137-001, that isn’t exactly the case. Because this galaxy…is shaped like a Jellyfish.
No, really, the spiral form of the galaxy is still there. BUT, it also has a “tail” that is formed by stars that are in its “wake” if you will, and it’s quite a tail as it extends over 260,000 light years into space!

8. NGC 1052-DF2
Ok, this one was weird in context as I’ll explain. You see, in 2018, the Hubble Space Telescope (one of the most important pieces of technology we have in terms of mapping space) found a galaxy known as NGC 1052-DF2. When scientists and astronomers looked at the galaxy though, they felt that something was missing. Mainly, there was a lack of Dark Matter, and that should’ve been impossible.
“Dark matter is conventionally believed to be an integral part of all galaxies — the glue that holds them together and the underlying scaffolding upon which they are built,” explains co-author Allison Merritt from Yale University and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Germany.

7. MACS 2129-1
The place known as MACS 2129-1 is definitely a galaxy that stands out for a whole host of reasons. Not the least of which is because it’s what’s known as a “No life Galaxy”. To be clear, there is life in the form of stars and planets within it, that’s not the issue. But, the galaxy is no longer “active”, meaning that it’s not making anymore stars despite it being over 10 billion years old.

6. The Andromeda galaxy
Arguably the most famous galaxy in the universe outside the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy is one that has led many people to wonder what is just outside our own galaxy, mainly because it’s our neighbor. Not just that, it’s our largest neighbor by a wide margin, and there’s a very good reason for that. Mainly, the Andromeda Galaxy is known as a “cannibal galaxy”.
What does that mean? Well, as the title describes, it actually collides with and devours other galaxies in order to make itself bigger:
“Andromeda has a much bigger and more complex stellar halo than the Milky Way, which indicates that it has cannibalized many more galaxies, possibly larger ones,” lead study author Dougal Mackey, an astronomer at Australian National University, said in a statement. “Knowing what kind of a monster our galaxy is up against is useful in finding out the Milky Way’s ultimate fate.”

So, remember the Jellyfish Galaxy we talked about a little while ago? Well, meet its cousin, the Tadpole Galaxy. This one is very on the nose in terms of its name because of the fact that it has a LONG tail that is attached to a body that reminds scientists of a tadpole. So looking at this you may wonder, “How did this happen?” According to the ones who found it, it’s a remnant of sorts from a galaxy that collided with another.
4. W2246-0526
If this list has shown you anything so far, it’s that the state of our universe is very much in a state of flux. But what you might not realize is that while some galaxies do collide with each other, others go and just steal things from one another. They alter shapes, steal stars, and sometimes even become brighter. Which is the case with W2246-0526:

3. Little Cub
Found in the Ursa Major Constellation, there is a dwarf galaxy known fondly as the “Little Cub”, and it’s one that has scientists very curious despite its impending doom. Why is that? Because the “Little Cub” as it is known is a galaxy that is dormant, and it has remained unchanged for about 13.7 billion years. If you know the alleged history of the universe, that would mean that it has been the same since the beginning of the universe more or less.

2. The Petal Galaxy
Let’s dig back into the visuals of galaxies for a bit. There are many galaxies out there in the universe that are growing at various rates as we’ve shown. But ESO 381-12 is different. Not only is this one growing, it’s growing in a way and in a shape that is truly baffling scientists. How so? Well, it looks like a flower in bloom, and the “petals” as they are known aren’t symmetrical.

1. Messier 83
15 million light years away in the Hydra is the galaxy known as Messier 83, and it is a galaxy that has caught a lot of people’s eyes. Mainly because those who have looked at it noticed that it has “two hearts”:

#InsaneCuriosity #StrangestGalaxies #HowTheUniverseWorks

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The Most Massive Objects In The Universe!

The Most Massive Objects In The Universe!

Did you know that our universe is so big that we cannot really approximate its actual size?
Now that you can imagine how our universe is extremely big, it’s easy to grasp that it’s filled with wonder-souly massive objects. Curious to know these objects in order? Keep watching!
The Most Massive Objects in the Universe.

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Prior to stating the list of the most massive objects in the universe, it’s crucial to understand the concept of mass along with the astronomical mass units. Mass by definition is the measure of the amount of matter in an object usually measured in grams (g) or kilograms (kg), however due to the difficulties in measuring and expressing astronomical data in the international system of units (SI units); the Astronomical System of Units was developed in 1979 in which there was a redefinition of units of mass, time and length and the astronomical constants as well.
The astronomical unit of mass is the solar mass aka the mass of the sun which is approximately equal to 1.98892 * 10^(30) kg and it’s the standard unit of describing the mass of stars and galaxies.

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When it comes to cosmology, the term object is a loose concept because the universe is filled up with so many objects such as planets, stars, black holes and pulsars. However, one must ask “is any structure of gravitationally bound matter considered to be an object?” If the answer is yes, then we must consider nebulae, galaxies, galaxy clusters and the clusters of the galaxy clusters as objects as well. Moreover, we should consider the cosmic web, which is an overarching structure that holds all the matter in the universe as an object. Therefore, in this video we are introducing the most massive objects in the universe covering most of their types in descending order:

10- As you probably know, the most massive object in the universe from the beginning of time is the universe itself right before the moment of the big bang. The big bang model states that the universe at the beginning 13.7 billion years ago was in an extremely hot and dense state, just try to imagine the total mass of the universe condensed into extremely infinitesimally small point-like singularity.

9- Dark Energy; which constitutes 68% of the universe- you may wonder how on earth would energy be massive?! But thanks to Einstein’s energy-mass famous equation E=mc^(2) where c is the speed of light, transforming energy into mass is trivial. You may also have heard of the dark energy previously but let me explain its importance in detail… scientists in the early 1990s were fairly certain about some dynamics of the universe’s expansion; such that it might have enough energy density to stop its expansion and recollapse or it might have so little energy that it would never stop expanding, however, the gravitational forces were certain to slow the expansion as time went on due to the fact that our universe is full of matter and the attractive force of gravity pulls all matter together. However, in 1998, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae showed that a long time ago; the universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. In other words, the expansion of the universe has not been slowing down due to gravity, as everyone expected, but it has been accelerating and something was causing this acceleration. Eventually, theorists still do not know what the correct explanation is but they have given the solution a name, it’s called the dark energy.
More is unknown than is known about dark energy, the amount of dark energy is known because we know how it influences the universe’s expansion. There Are three possible explanations of dark energy, One explanation is that it’s a property of space -yes space has many amazing properties, many of which are just beginning to be understood- Einstein was the first to realize that empty space can possess its own energy, furthermore, it’s possible for more space to come into existence. And because this energy is a property of space itself, it would not be diluted as the space expands. Additionally, as more space comes into existence, more of this space-energy will appear which will be the reason that the universe will expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, there are some issues regarding this fancy model and related to the cosmological constant.
8- Dark matter which constitutes 27% of the universe.

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