WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER?
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in India. It is estimated that approximately 1 in 6 men suffers from it, and it is more frequent at older ages.
Even though prostate cancer can be slow-growing cancer, thousands of men die from prostate cancer each year. Internationally, prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in men.
The marked variation in the rates of presentation of prostate cancer in different parts of the world suggests that certain genetic factors are present. Family predisposition also occurs. Environmental factors, especially diet, are also of importance, explains urologist in Delhi.
Currently, due to technological advances in medical practice, most prostate cancers are identified in patients who are asymptomatic. Diagnosis in such situations is based on the detection of abnormal levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or on the findings at the time of digital rectal examination on physical examination.
There are many known causes of prostate cancer today. The marked variation in the rates of presentation of prostate cancer throughout the world suggests the participation of genetic factors within the probable causes of prostate cancer.
- Genetics: Studies of different populations have identified several variants in the 8q24 region on chromosome 8, which is associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Variations in chromosomes 1, 17 and the “X” chromosome have also been found. ”In some patients with a family history of prostate cancer. The HPC1 gene (hereditary prostate cancer 1) and the PCAP gene (which predisposes to prostate cancer) are found on chromosome 1, while the human prostate cancer gene is on the “X” chromosome. Several genetic studies suggest that there is a strong family predisposition when presenting with prostate cancer, with 10-15% of prostate cancers having one or more cases of the prostate in the family.
- Diet: Healthy and beneficial diets for the cardiovascular system seem to have some efficacy in preventing prostate cancer or other cancers. An example of this type of diet is the Mediterranean diet, which consists mainly of fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, olive oil, chicken and seafood (non-fat protein sources).
- Hormonal: The hormonal causes of prostate cancer have also been discussed because it has been observed that the decrease in androgens causes regression of prostate cancer. Also, as indirect evidence of prostate cancer, eunuchs do not develop prostate adenocarcinoma.
There are many symptoms of prostate cancer that a patient can present, however, in most cases, patients with prostate cancer remain asymptomatic. The diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who are asymptomatic is carried out by research when carrying out control studies and observing that there are abnormalities in the results, specifically in the levels of the specific prostate antigen and on other occasions when performing Physical examination of the prostate by digital rectal examination may reveal abnormalities, explains the best urologist in Delhi.
When the symptoms of prostate cancer appear and the appropriate studies are not available to make the diagnosis, they can be confused with some other disease, for example, increased urinary frequency, urinary urgency and decreased urine flow, can be symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy or hyperplasia.
The symptoms of prostate cancer in advanced stages are manifested in the bones frequently, because prostate cancer has a great predilection for metastasizing to the bone.
Some of the symptoms of advanced prostate cancer are as follows:
- Decreased weight and loss of appetite.
- Bone pain, which may or may not be accompanied by pathological fractures due to weakening of the bone.
- Neuronal deficit due to compression of the spinal cord.
- Pain and volume increase in the lower extremities due to obstruction of the venous and lymphatic system due to metastatic nodules.
- Cachexia (malnutrition and a significant weakening of the body).
- Decreased bone density.
- Edema of the lower extremities or deep vein thrombosis.
- Over-distended bladder as a consequence of obstruction secondary to metastasis.
The best urologist in Pitampura recommends that the selection of prostate cancer treatment should consider the following points:
- Cancer severity (a stage in which it is found).
- Patient preferences.
- Life expectancy.
- Functional prior treatment and genitourinary symptoms present.
- The expectation of functional status after treatment used.
Standard treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include the following points:
- Active surveillance.
- Wait watchful.
- Radical prostatectomy.
- Radiation therapy.
- Hormone therapy.
Treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer, radiation therapy is generally recommended by urologist in Pitampura in conjunction with androgen ablation, although radical prostatectomy may be the appropriate alternative to radiation therapy in some cases. A combination of external radiation, brachytherapy, and hormonal therapy is also being used as a prostate cancer treatment, however, it remains unclear whether it offers any advantage over hormonal therapy and external radiation alone, and if it increases complications.
Unfortunately, despite any prostate cancer treatment that may be used, it can rarely be cured in cases where there is already metastasis. The management of these cases usually includes therapy directly related to the relief of symptoms (palliative treatment for pain) and attempts to slow the progression of the disease.
When we choose the best option as a prostate cancer treatment, it is done to create long-term survival in less than 10% of patients.
Most patients undergoing treatment for prostate cancer are cured either because the treatment was effective or because they had a non-fatal tumour and treatment was not entirely necessary. The rest of the patients are not cured, either because there were unsuspected micrometastases in them or because local therapy did not eradicate all the malignant cells.
Watchful waiting as a treatment for prostate cancer is normally recommended by a urologist in Rohini for patients who are elderly and for those who have significant comorbidities that limit their life expectancy or a life expectancy of less than 10 years. It is possible and very likely that these patients will have a poorer quality of life if their cancer is treated than if it allows the disease to run its course. They have a high chance of dying from any of the added comorbidities, and treatment for prostate cancer could worsen your condition and thus hasten death, warns the best urologist in Rohini.
As for radiation therapy, we have two possibilities:
- External-beam radiation therapy: A radiation therapy study for the treatment of localized prostate cancer showed that those patients who received radiation therapy had fewer gastrointestinal complications and fewer hip fractures, as well as less chance of undergoing additional cancer treatments. Prostate, however, were more prone to erectile dysfunction.
- Brachytherapy: It consists of the insertion of radioactive seeds inside the prostate gland.
Radical prostatectomy usually achieves good results in patients with localized prostate cancer, however, in patients who already have metastases and undergo radical prostatectomy, they do not obtain many benefits in terms of cure, despite that In many cases, it is advisable to use a surgical treatment such as transurethral resection of the prostate because patients suffer obstruction of the urinary tract due to tumour growth, says urologist in Delhi.
The first-line treatment for prostate cancer in patients in whom metastasis has been identified is the suppression of male hormones, however, this may cause some side effects such as anaemia, erectile dysfunction, decreased libido. , fatigue, decreased muscle strength, decreased bone density, among others, says sexologist in Rohini.